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INTRODUCTION Apheis aims to provide European decision makers, environmental-health professionals and the general public with up-to-date and easy-to-use information on air pollution (AP) and public health (PH). In the Apheis-3 phase we quantified the PH impact of long-term exposure to PM(2.5) (particulate matter < 2.5 microm) in terms of attributable number(More)
INTRODUCTION This report provides the methodology and findings from the project: Air Pollution and Health: a European and North American Approach (APHENA). The principal purpose of the project was to provide an understanding of the degree of consistency among findings of multicity time-series studies on the effects of air pollution on mortality and(More)
BACKGROUND Epidemiologic studies show that high temperatures are related to mortality, but little is known about the exposure-response function and the lagged effect of heat. We report the associations between daily maximum apparent temperature and daily deaths during the warm season in 15 European cities. METHODS The city-specific analyses were based on(More)
RATIONALE Episode analyses of heat waves have documented a comparatively higher impact on mortality than on morbidity (hospital admissions) in European cities. The evidence from daily time series studies is scarce and inconsistent. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the impact of high environmental temperatures on hospital admissions during April to September in 12(More)
In 2003, a Heat Health Watch Warning System was developed in France to anticipate heat waves that may result in a large excess of mortality. The system was developed on the basis of a retrospective analysis of mortality and meteorological data in fourteen pilot cities. Several meteorological indicators were tested in relation to levels of excess mortality.(More)
In the Air Pollution and Health: A European Approach (APHEA2) project, the effects of ambient ozone concentrations on mortality were investigated. Data were collected on daily ozone concentrations, the daily number of deaths, confounders, and potential effect modifiers from 23 cities/areas for at least 3 years since 1990. Effect estimates were obtained for(More)
Recently new European policies on ambient air quality--namely, the adoption of new standards for fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)), have generated a broad debate about choosing the air quality standards that can best protect public health. The Apheis network estimated the number of potential premature deaths from all causes that could be prevented by(More)
We observed the daily trend in mortality rates during the 2003 heat wave in 13 of France's largest cities. Mortality data were collected from July 25 to September 15 each year from 1999 through 2003. The conjunction of a maximum temperature of 35 degrees C and a minimum temperature of 20 degrees C was exceptional in 7 cities. An excess mortality rate was(More)
The objective of this study is to assess the short-term effect of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) air pollution levels on hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases. Daily mean hospital admissions for cardiovascular diseases, ischemic heart diseases (IHDs), and stroke in seven European areas (the cities of Birmingham, London, Milan, Paris, Rome, and Stockholm,(More)
BACKGROUND The impact of outdoor air pollution on infant mortality has not been quantified. METHODS Based on exposure-response functions from a U.S. cohort study, we assessed the attributable risk of postneonatal infant mortality in 23 U.S. metropolitan areas related to particulate matter <10 microm in diameter (PM10) as a surrogate of total air(More)