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Thyroid cancer is one of the few malignancies that are increasing in incidence. Recent advances have improved our understanding of its pathogenesis; these include the identification of genetic alterations that activate a common effector pathway involving the RET–Ras–BRAF signalling cascade, and other unique chromosomal rearrangements. Some of these have(More)
INTRODUCTION The American Thyroid Association appointed a Task Force of experts to revise the original Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma: Management Guidelines of the American Thyroid Association. METHODS The Task Force identified relevant articles using a systematic PubMed search, supplemented with additional published materials, and then created(More)
This report describes the clinicopathological features of 16 patients with lymphocytic hypophysitis and compares the results with the published literature. There were 2 males and 14 females in this series. In 10 of the 14 females (71%), the presentation was associated with pregnancy. Nine patients (56%) presented with symptoms of an expanding pituitary(More)
Myostatin, a member of the transforming growth factor-beta superfamily, is a genetic determinant of skeletal muscle growth. Mice and cattle with inactivating mutations of myostatin have marked muscle hypertrophy. However, it is not known whether myostatin regulates skeletal muscle growth in adult men and whether increased myostatin expression contributes to(More)
IMPORTANCE Although growing evidence points to highly indolent behavior of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma (EFVPTC), most patients with EFVPTC are treated as having conventional thyroid cancer. OBJECTIVE To evaluate clinical outcomes, refine diagnostic criteria, and develop a nomenclature that appropriately reflects the(More)
Pituitary tumours are common and show a range of hormonal and proliferative behaviours that provide a model for the study of neoplasia mechanisms. Mutations in classic oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes, however, are rarely associated with these tumours. In fact, most mechanisms of endocrine tumorigenesis differ significantly from those associated with(More)
The gene encoding proglucagon is expressed predominantly in the pancreas and intestine. The physiological importance of glucagon secreted from the islets of Langerhans has engendered considerable interest in the molecular control of proglucagon gene transcription in the endocrine pancreas. In contrast, little is known about the molecular control of(More)
BACKGROUND Pituitary adenomas display an array of hormonal and proliferative activity. Once primarily classified according to size (microadenomas, < 1 cm; macroadenomas, > or = 1 cm), these tumors are now further classified according to immunohistochemistry and functional status. With these additional classifications in mind, the goals of the current study(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-2, a product of the proglucagon gene, is expressed in enteroendocrine cells of the small and large intestine and is trophic to the gastrointestinal mucosa. GLP-2 also inhibits gastric acid secretion and emptying and up-regulates intestinal hexose transport. GLP-2 acts via binding to a single G protein-coupled(More)
In thyroid, the diagnosis of papillary carcinoma (PC) is based on nuclear features; however, identification of these features is inconsistent and controversial. Proposed markers of PC include HBME-1, specific cytokeratins (CK) such as CK19, and ret, the latter reflecting a ret/PTC rearrangement. We applied immunohistochemical stains to determine the(More)