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Homologues of the T-box gene Brachyury play important roles in mesoderm differentiation and other aspects of early development in all bilaterians. In the diploblast Hydra, the Brachyury homologue HyBra1 acts early in the formation of the hypostome, the location of the organiser in adult Hydra. We now report the isolation and characterisation of a second(More)
The central nervous system (CNS) develops from the neural tube, a hollow structure filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF) and surrounded by neuroepithelial cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that the eCSF contains diffusible factors regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the neuroepithelium, although these factors are(More)
Understanding the events that led to the emergence of the bilaterians is a daunting task, impaired by the huge evolutionary gap separating us from the pre-Cambrian. During gastrulation, the expression of the transcription factor Brachyury is remarkably well conserved around the blastopore of bilaterians and cnidarians. Only the bilaterian Brachyury(More)
Orthologues of Brachyury, a subfamily of T-box transcription factors, specify distinct cell types in different metazoan phyla, suggesting that the function of these genes has changed through the course of evolution. To investigate this evolutionary process, we have compared the activities of Brachyury orthologues from all major phyla in a single cellular(More)
Although many regulators of skeletogenesis have been functionally characterized, one current challenge is to integrate this information into regulatory networks. Here, we discuss how the canonical Wnt and Smad-dependent BMP pathways interact together and play antagonistic or cooperative roles at different steps of osteogenesis, in the context of the(More)
The origin of bone and cartilage, and their subsequent diversification in specific vertebrate lineages, is intimately linked to the precise transcriptional control of genes involved in matrix mineralization. It is not yet clear, however, to which extent the osteoblasts, osteocytes, and chondrocytes of each of the major vertebrate groups express similar sets(More)
Changes in cis-regulatory sequences are proposed to underlie much of morphological evolution. Yet, little is known about how such modifications translate into phenotypic differences. To address this problem, we focus on the dorsocentral bristles of Drosophilidae. In Drosophila melanogaster, development of these bristles depends on a cis-regulatory element,(More)
Osteogenesis is the fundamental process by which bones are formed, maintained and regenerated. The osteoblasts deposit the bone mineralized matrix by secreting large amounts of extracellular proteins and by allowing the biochemical conditions for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. Normal bone formation requires a tight control of osteoblastic(More)
The emergence of vertebrates is closely associated to the evolution of mineralized bone tissue. However, the molecular basis underlying the origin and subsequent diversification of the skeletal mineralized matrix is still poorly understood. One efficient way to tackle this issue is to compare the expression, between vertebrate species, of osteoblastic genes(More)
Vitamin C plays key roles in cell homeostasis, acting as a potent antioxidant as well as a positive modulator of cell differentiation. In skeletal muscle, the vitamin C/sodium co-transporter SVCT2 is preferentially expressed in oxidative slow fibers. Besides, SVCT2 is up-regulated upon the early fusion of primary myoblasts. However, our knowledge of the(More)