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The central nervous system (CNS) develops from the neural tube, a hollow structure filled with embryonic cerebrospinal fluid (eCSF) and surrounded by neuroepithelial cells. Several lines of evidence suggest that the eCSF contains diffusible factors regulating the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of the neuroepithelium, although these factors are(More)
Changes in cis-regulatory sequences are proposed to underlie much of morphological evolution. Yet, little is known about how such modifications translate into phenotypic differences. To address this problem, we focus on the dorsocentral bristles of Drosophilidae. In Drosophila melanogaster, development of these bristles depends on a cis-regulatory element,(More)
Osteogenesis is the fundamental process by which bones are formed, maintained and regenerated. The osteoblasts deposit the bone mineralized matrix by secreting large amounts of extracellular proteins and by allowing the biochemical conditions for the nucleation of hydroxyapatite crystals. Normal bone formation requires a tight control of osteoblastic(More)
Understanding the evolutionary emergence and subsequent diversification of the vertebrate skeleton requires a comprehensive view of the diverse skeletal cell types found in distinct developmental contexts, tissues, and species. To date, our knowledge of the molecular nature of the shark calcified extracellular matrix, and its relationships with osteichthyan(More)
Vitamin C plays key roles in cell homeostasis, acting as a potent antioxidant as well as a positive modulator of cell differentiation. In skeletal muscle, the vitamin C/sodium co-transporter SVCT2 is preferentially expressed in oxidative slow fibers. Besides, SVCT2 is up-regulated upon the early fusion of primary myoblasts. However, our knowledge of the(More)
BACKGROUND The mineralized skeleton is a major evolutionary novelty that has contributed to the impressive morphological diversifications of the vertebrates. Essential to bone biology is the solidified extracellular matrix secreted by highly specialized cells, the osteoblasts. We now have a rather complete view of the events underlying osteogenesis, from a(More)
Understanding the events that led to the emergence of the bilaterians is a daunting task, impaired by the huge evolutionary gap separating us from the pre-Cambrian. During gastrulation, the expression of the transcription factor Brachyury is remarkably well conserved around the blastopore of bilaterians and cnidarians. Only the bilaterian Brachyury(More)
The achaete-scute complex of Drosophila has been the focus of extensive genetic and developmental analysis. Of the four genes at this locus, achaete and scute appear to act redundantly to specify the peripheral nervous system. They share cis-regulatory elements and are co-expressed at the same locations. A mutation removing scute activity has been(More)
Living organisms display an astonishing morphological and behavioral diversity shaped by extrinsic environmental conditions and by intrinsic changes in developmental processes. In turn, such developmental trajectories are contingent on a myriad of regulatory interactions occurring at all possible steps of gene expression and cellular function. We are(More)
The vertebrate endoskeleton results from the piecemeal assembly of bone and cartilage as well as additional types of calcified extracellular matrices produced by seemingly hybrid cell types of intermediate phenotypes between osteoblasts and chondrocytes. Hence, shedding light on the emergence and subsequent diversification of skeletal tissues represents a(More)
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