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BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to determine whether the invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence properties of methylene blue (MB), a dye already approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for other indications, could be exploited for real-time, intra-operative identification of the ureters. METHODS The optical properties of MB were(More)
The field of biomedical optics has matured rapidly over the last decade and is poised to make a significant impact on patient care. In particular, wide-field (typically > 5 cm), planar, near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging has the potential to revolutionize human surgery by providing real-time image guidance to surgeons for tissue that needs to be(More)
BACKGROUND Iatrogenic bile duct injuries are serious complications with patient morbidity. We hypothesized that the invisible near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence properties of methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG) could be exploited for real-time, intraoperative imaging of the extrahepatic bile ducts during open and laparoscopic surgeries. METHODS(More)
We describe a noncontact profile correction technique for quantitative, wide-field optical measurement of tissue absorption (microa) and reduced scattering (micros) coefficients, based on geometric correction of the sample's Lambertian (diffuse) reflectance intensity. Because the projection of structured light onto an object is the basis for both(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer requires optimized imaging systems and lymphatic tracers. A small, portable version of the FLARE imaging system, termed Mini-FLARE, was developed for capturing color video and two semi-independent channels of NIR fluorescence (700 and 800 nm) in real time. Initial(More)
Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve the sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure by facilitating percutaneous and intraoperative identification of lymphatic channels and SLNs. Previous studies suggested that a dose of 0.62 mg (1.6 mL of 0.5 mM) ICG is optimal for SLN mapping in breast cancer. The(More)
Optical imaging requires appropriate light sources. For image-guided surgery, in particular fluorescence-guided surgery, a high fluence rate, a long working distance, computer control, and precise control of wavelength are required. In this article, we describe the development of light-emitting diode (LED)-based light sources that meet these criteria. These(More)
Oxygenation measurements are widely used in patient care. However, most clinically available instruments currently consist of contact probes that only provide global monitoring of the patient (e.g., pulse oximetry probes) or local monitoring of small areas (e.g., spectroscopy-based probes). Visualization of oxygenation over large areas of tissue, without a(More)
Spatial frequency-domain imaging (SFDI) utilizes multiple-frequency structured illumination and model-based computation to generate two-dimensional maps of tissue absorption and scattering properties. SFDI absorption data are measured at multiple wavelengths and used to fit for the tissue concentration of intrinsic chromophores in each pixel. This is done(More)
We introduce a noncontact imaging method utilizing multifrequency structured illumination for improving lateral and axial resolution and contrast of fluorescent molecular probes in thick, multiple-scattering tissue phantoms. The method can be implemented rapidly using a spatial light modulator and a simple image demodulation scheme similar to structured(More)