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The direct estimation of heritability from genome-wide common variant data as implemented in the program Genome-wide Complex Trait Analysis (GCTA) has provided a means to quantify heritability attributable to all interrogated variants. We have quantified the variance in liability to disease explained by all SNPs for two phenotypically-related(More)
Idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the dysfunction of dopaminergic dependent cortico-basal ganglia loops and diagnosed on the basis of motor symptoms (tremors and/or rigidity and bradykinesia). Post-mortem studies tend to show that the destruction of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra constitutes(More)
Previous studies have shown greater atrophy in grey and white matter of various brain regions in patients with Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment than in those without. These anatomical differences likely account for the distinct clinical profiles observed between those groups, but do not account for the evolution of regional brain(More)
Mirror movements are involuntary contralateral movements that mirror voluntary ones and are often associated with defects in midline crossing of the developing central nervous system. We studied two large families, one French Canadian and one Iranian, in which isolated congenital mirror movements were inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. We found that(More)
UNLABELLED Studies assessing the efficacy of nicotine in Parkinson's disease (PD) have generated contradictory results. The controversy seems to stem from uncontrolled factors including the lack of objective measures, the practice effect in a test-retest design, and the absence of plasmatic dosage. This study aimed at further controlling these factors using(More)
Huntington's disease (HD) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting the striatum and associated with deficits in voluntary movement in early stages. The final portion of aiming movements is particularly affected in HD and one hypothesis is that this deficit is linked to attention or terminal control requirements. Sixteen patients with early HD and 16(More)
The authors examined the nature of the working memory deficit in persons with Parkinson's disease (PD). Three hypotheses were tested: a limited storage capacity, an impaired executive component, and a reduction of psychomotor speed. Verbal working memory was assessed in 14 PD patients without dementia and 14 matched control participants. Participants were(More)
Motor complications in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with long-term oral levodopa treatment and linked to pulsatile dopaminergic stimulation. L-dopa-carbidopa intestinal gel (LCIG) is delivered continuously by percutaneous endoscopic gastrojejunostomy tube (PEG-J), which reduces L-dopa-plasma-level fluctuations and can translate to reduced motor(More)
Dystonia is a syndrome of sustained muscular contractions with numerous underlying etiologies. This review examines the varied phenomenology of dystonias, its evolving classification including recent genetic data as well as its clinical investigation and treatment. Although age of onset, anatomical distribution and family history are key elements of the(More)
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a genetically complex disorder for which no causative genes have been unequivocally identified. Nevertheless, a number of molecular genetic studies have investigated several candidate genes, particularly those implicated in dopamine modulation. The results of these studies were inconclusive, which may be due, at least in part, to(More)