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The role of retinal microglial cells (MCs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. Here we demonstrated that all retinal MCs express CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) and that homozygosity for the CX3CR1 M280 allele, which is associated with impaired cell migration, increases the risk of AMD. In humans with AMD, MCs accumulated in the(More)
PURPOSE Newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia during the first days of life have been shown to exhibit not only vasculopathy but also permanent changes in the structure and function of the retina. Given that the rat retina is immature at birth and that the maturation process continues until the opening of the eyes at 14 days of life, this study was conducted to(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Oxidant stress, especially in the premature, plays a major role in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathies mostly manifested in the periventricular region. We studied the vasomotor mode of actions of the peroxidation product 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) (8-iso-prostaglandin F(2alpha)) on periventricular region(More)
Using a video-imaging technique, we characterized the effects of 8-isoprostaglandin F2 alpha (8-iso-PGF2 alpha) on retinal vasculature from piglets. 8-Iso-PGF2 alpha potently contracted (EC50 = 5.9 +/- 0.5 nM) retinal vessels. These effects were completely antagonized by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, the thromboxane synthase blocker CGS-12970,(More)
Classically, the prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) receptor EP(4) has been classified as coupling to the Galpha(s) subunit, leading to intracellular cAMP increases. However, EP(4) signaling has been revealed to be more complex and also involves coupling to pertussis toxin-sensitive Galpha(i) proteins and beta-arrestin-mediated effects. There are now many examples(More)
PURPOSE Postnatal hyperoxia in rats causes an arrest in growth of retinal blood vessels, along with severe changes in retinal ultrastructure and function. Previous studies focused on consequences of postnatal hyperoxia at time points substantially removed from the hyperoxic insult. In this study, the earliest manifestations of this retinopathy were(More)
PURPOSE Findings in a previous study have shown that the retina of newborn rats exposed to hyperoxia during the first days of life sustain permanent functional (as determined with the rod ERG) and structural (as determined with histology) damage that appears to be determined by the level of retinal maturity reached at the time of oxygen exposure-the retinas(More)
Microvascular degeneration is an important event in oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR), a model of retinopathy of prematurity. Because oxidant stress abundantly generates thromboxane A2 (TxA2), we tested whether TxA2 plays a role in retinal vasoobliteration of OIR and contributes to such vascular degeneration by direct endothelial cytotoxicity.(More)
F2-isoprostanes are prostaglandin F2-like compounds that are formed nonenzymatically by free radical-induced oxidation of arachidonic acid. We explored whether oxidation of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6omega3), which is highly enriched in the brain, led to the formation of F2-isoprostane-like compounds, which we term F4-neuroprostanes. Oxidation of(More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying H(2)O(2)-induced toxicity were characterized in rat oligodendrocyte cultures. While progenitor cells were more sensitive than mature oligodendrocytes to H(2)O(2), the antioxidant, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, blocked toxicity at both stages of development. Differentiated oligodendrocytes contained more glutathione than did(More)