Sylvain Billiard

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The advantage of sex has been among the most debated issues in biology. Surprisingly, the question of why sexual reproduction generally requires the combination of distinct gamete classes, such as small and large gametes, or gametes with different mating types, has been much less investigated. Why do systems with alternative gamete classes (i.e. systems(More)
We present here a stochastic two-locus, two-habitat model for the evolution of migration with local adaptation and kin selection. One locus determines the migration rate while the other causes local adaptation. We show that the opposing forces of kin competition and local adaptation can lead to the existence of one or two convergence stable migration rates,(More)
We developed a general model of sporophytic self-incompatibility under negative frequency-dependent selection allowing complex patterns of dominance among alleles. We used this model deterministically to investigate the effects on equilibrium allelic frequencies of the number of dominance classes, the number of alleles per dominance class, the asymmetry in(More)
Variability in the way organisms reproduce raises numerous, and still unsolved, questions in evolutionary biology. In this study, we emphasize that fungi deserve a much greater emphasis in efforts to address these questions because of their multiple advantages as model eukaryotes. A tremendous diversity of reproductive modes and mating systems can be found(More)
Frequency-dependent selection is a major force determining the evolutionary dynamics of alleles at the self-incompatibility locus (S-locus) in flowering plants. We introduce a general method using numerical simulations to test several alternative models of frequency-dependent selection on S-locus data from sporophytic systems, taking into account both(More)
Inbreeding depression and mating systems evolution are closely linked, because the purging of deleterious mutations and the fitness of individuals may depend on outcrossing vs. selfing rates. Further, the accumulation of deleterious mutations may vary among genomic regions, especially for genes closely linked to loci under balancing selection. Sporophytic(More)
Frequency-dependent selection is an important process in the maintenance of genetic variation in fitness. In humans, it has been proposed that the polymorphism of handedness is maintained by negative frequency-dependent selection, through a strategic advantage of left-handers in fighting interactions. Using simple mathematical models, we explore: (1)(More)
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Recent theoretical advances have suggested that various forms of balancing selection may promote the evolution of dominance through an increase of the proportion of heterozygote genotypes. We test whether dominance can evolve in the sporophytic self-incompatibility (SSI) system in plants. SSI prevents mating between individuals expressing identical SI(More)
According to the current, widely accepted paradigm, the evolutionary transition from hermaphroditism toward separate sexes occurs in two successive steps: an initial, intermediate step in which unisexual individuals, male or female, sterility mutants coexist with hermaphrodites and a final step that definitively establishes dioecy. Two nonexclusive(More)