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BACKGROUND Lennox-Gastaut syndrome is a catastrophic pediatric epilepsy syndrome characterized by multiple types of treatment-resistant seizures and high rates of seizure-related injury. Current available treatments are inadequate, leaving patients with few treatment options and opportunities. METHODS We conducted a double-blind, randomized,(More)
Little is known about what pathways subserve mirth and its expression laughter. We present three patients with gelastic seizures and laughter elicited by electrical stimulation of the cortex who provide some insight into the mechanisms of laughter and its emotional concomitants. The first patient had seizures manifested by laughter without a subjective(More)
OBJECTIVE This open-label extension evaluated the long-term efficacy and tolerability of rufinamide in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) who had previously completed a 12-week double-blind study. MATERIALS AND METHODS In total, 124 patients (aged 4-37 years), receiving 1-3 concomitant antiepileptic drugs, were treated with rufinamide(More)
PURPOSE To evaluate the ability of proton MR spectroscopy to detect metabolic abnormalities in the seizure focus of humans with epilepsy. METHODS Single-voxel MR spectroscopy and MR imaging was performed in a group of 13 patients with a variety of seizure disorders and in the temporal lobes of 14 healthy volunteers. Signals from choline, creatine,(More)
Efficacy and tolerability of tiagabine was evaluated in patients with non-controlled partial seizures in a multicentre, open-label, parallel group study. Tiagabine was administered either two (b.i.d.) or three times daily (t.i.d.) as adjunctive therapy and titrated stepwise to a target of 40 mg/day during a 12-week, fixed-schedule titration period; this was(More)
PURPOSE We wished to define the localization of cortical generators of visual (pattern) evoked potentials (VEP) and the temporal sequence of activation in the occipital region. METHODS In 4 candidates for epilepsy surgery, a large array of subdural electrodes was placed over occipital areas. Checkerboard pattern reversal stimuli were generated and the(More)
Frequencies above 35-40 Hz are poorly visualized on conventional EEG scalp recordings. We investigated frequency components up to 150 Hz in digitally recorded EEGs of seizures in five patients with implanted subdural grids, as part of their evaluation for epilepsy surgery. Amplifier bandpass was set from 0.1 to 300 Hz, and EEG was digitized at 2,000 samples(More)
Treating a patient with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) may give rise to unexpected life-threatening adverse events. Despite extensive experimental and clinical testing to ensure safety, most AEDs on the market have been associated with cases of severe cutaneous reactions, serious hematological disorders, or hepatic failure. Most of these disorders emerge as(More)
Extensive clinical use and a series of clinical trials have shown that oxcarbazepine is a valuable antiepileptic drug for the treatment of adults and children with partial onset seizures both in initial monotherapy, for conversion to monotherapy and as adjunctive therapy. The clinically recommended titration scheme for all forms of therapy in adults is to(More)
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of topiramate as monotherapy, using a dose-controlled study design. MATERIALS AND METHODS We conducted a multinational, randomized, double-blind trial in adults and children (> or =6 years old) with epilepsy that was not being treated when randomized to 400 or 50 mg/day topiramate as target maintenance(More)