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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals are believed to be initiators of peroxidative cell damage. This paper focused on the use of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein-diacetate (DCFH-DA) to quantitate cerebral ROS as an index for neurotoxicity. This technique employs an assay of dichlorofluorescein (DCF), the(More)
The effects of the neurotoxic metals methylmercury (MeHg) and trimethyltin (TMT) on oxygen reactive species formation within a crude synaptosomal fraction (P2), using the probe 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate (DCFH-DA), and intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), with the fluorescent indicator fluo-3, have been investigated. Two and seven days after a single(More)
Graphitic nanomaterials such as graphene layers (G) and single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) are potential candidates in a large number of biomedical applications. However, little is known about the effects of these nanomaterials on biological systems. Here we show that the shape of these materials is directly related to their induced cellular toxicity.(More)
Recently we have reported that methamphetamine (METH) neurotoxicity in rats depends on the environmental temperature. Here, we evaluate whether a cold environment (4 degrees C) or drugs which chloride and glutamate ion channel function block METH neurotoxicity in mice. Adult male CD mice received METH i.p. (4 x 10 mg/kg METH at 23 degrees C along with(More)
Histological examination of brain after a single high (40 mg/kg) dose of D-methamphetamine (METH) was used to determine the relationships between blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, hyperthermia, intense seizure activity, and extensive degeneration that this exposure often produces. In very hyperthermic mice (body temperatures > 40.5 degrees C) exhibiting(More)
Methamphetamine (METH) is one of the major drugs of abuse that is postulated to cause neurotoxicity by depleting dopamine (DA) and its metabolites, high-affinity DA uptake sites, and the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether the relatively selective, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor,(More)
Nicotine is a neuroteratogen that targets synaptic function during critical developmental stages and recent studies indicate that CNS vulnerability extends into adolescence, the time that smoking typically commences. We administered nicotine to pregnant or adolescent rats via continuous minipump infusions, using dose rates that replicate the plasma nicotine(More)
This investigation was designed to determine whether nano-sized manganese oxide (Mn-40 nm) particles would induce dopamine (DA) depletion in a cultured neuronal phenotype, PC-12 cells, similar to free ionic manganese (Mn(2+)). Cells were exposed to Mn-40 nm, Mn(2+) (acetate), or known cytotoxic silver nanoparticles (Ag-15 nm) for 24 h. Phase-contrast(More)
The effect of acute and subchronic acrylamide treatment on levels of dopamine, serotonin, and their metabolites was determined in several brain regions of the rat. Concentrations of several neuropeptides and circulating hormones were also measured. Both a single and repeated doses of acrylamide resulted in elevated levels of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid in all(More)
When male rats were injected four times (once every 2 hr) with 5 mg/kg methamphetamine (METH) at an environmental temperature of 23 degrees C, transient changes occurred in the levels of striatal dopamine (DA) and the regulation of striatal DA release. Striatal DA levels were minimally affected 1 day after METH treatment, but 3 days after METH treatment,(More)