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OBJECTIVE To explore an association between oral mucosal alterations and type 2 Diabetes mellitus. METHODS This study was conducted at Baqai Institute of Diabetology and Endocrinology and Baqai Medical University from September 2010 to September 2012. A total of 800 individuals' 395 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 405 healthy individuals were(More)
BACKGROUND Neurogenic inflammation may participate in the development and progression of bronchial asthma. The molecular mechanisms underlying neurogenic inflammation are orchestrated by a large number of neuropeptides including tachykinins such as neurokinin A (NKA) and substance P. Tachykinins are secreted from sensory airway nerves and inflammatory cells(More)
BACKGROUND The diagnostic criterion for beta thalassemia trait (BTT) is elevated Hb-A(2) levels. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) reduces the synthesis of Hb-A(2), resulting in reduced Hb-A(2) levels, so patients with co-pathological conditions BTT with IDA, may have a normal level of Hb-A(2). Many socio-economic factors like unawareness, poor diagnostic(More)
BACKGROUND The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of various cardiovascular disease risk factors: diabetes and pre-diabetes, abdominal obesity, hyperlipidaemia and high blood pressure. People with metabolic syndrome are twice as likely to die from and three times as likely to have a heart attack or stroke compared with people without the syndrome. The(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the predictive value of a set of laboratory markers for the assessment of liver fibrosis in chronic viral hepatitis patients. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Baqai Medical University, Combined Military Hospital, Malir, Karachi, from November 2006 to May 2008. METHODOLOGY Twenty laboratory(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of two rapid methods i.e. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) on Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) samples by comparing with cytology of respective site sample. STUDY DESIGN Cross-sectional comparative study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Department of Microbiology, Armed Forces(More)
OBJECTIVE To determine the frequency of HCV RNA in an anti-HCV non-reactive blood donor population with normal ALT, and its cost effectiveness. STUDY DESIGN An observational study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Baqai Institute of Haematology, Baqai Medical University, Karachi, and Combined Military Hospital, Malir Cantt, Karachi, from May 2006 to April(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the additional burden of the patients eligible for treatment, based on recommendations on viral load, in the light of 2009 version of AASLD guidelines, as compared to 2004 guidelines and to determine the frequency of HBeAg in chronic HBV carriers. STUDY DESIGN Descriptive cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY Virology(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the immunohistochemical expression of vascular endothelial growth factors in urothelial tumours of bladder and its possible association with tumour characteristics and microvessel density. METHODS The cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted at the Histopathology Department of the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology, Rawalpindi,(More)
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