Syed Ashraf Imam

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Antigen retrieval (AR) incorporating high-temperature microwave (MW) heating of tissue sections before immunostaining is a revolutionary technique that can unmask the antigens in formalin-fixed tissue sections, thus making them available for immunohistochemical staining. Although high temperature is believed to be the primary mechanism in retrieval of(More)
Different variations of the antigen retrieval technique using different retrieval solutions have been evaluated for their effectiveness in restoring the antigenicity of six intranuclear antigens, each of which is a potentially valuable prognostic indicator in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections. The results of immunohistochemical staining for(More)
The present study compared two microwave based antigen-retrieval solutions in their ability to unmask antigenic determinants in formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tissues for Immunostaining. In this regard, two widely used antigen-retrieval solutions, namely 0.05 M glycine-HCl buffer, pH 3.6, containing 0.01% (w/v) (EDTA) and 0.1 M sodium citrate buffer,(More)
BACKGROUND The expression of E-cadherin in the intercellular adhesion of metastatic prostate cancer cells in bone, which is the most prevalent site of metastatic growth, remains elusive. METHODS The aim of the study was to compare the concurrent membranous expression of E-cadherin and beta-catenin proteins, the state which is known to be associated with(More)
This study examines the role of LEF1, a component of the Wnt signaling pathway, in human breast and murine mammary carcinoma and its relationship to ErbB2 (her-2/neu) expression. Mammary tissue and tumors from 5 different Wnt pathway-activated transgenic mouse strains and 5 different ErbB2 pathway-activated transgenic mouse strains were studied for the(More)
Successful antigen retrieval (AR) immunohistochemistry is dependent on the temperature, heating time, and pH value of the AR solutions. There is no single standardized AR solution, however, that is suitable for all antibodies "routinely" used in surgical pathology for immunostaining archival tissue sections. We tested a variety of AR solutions varying in pH(More)
AIM The aim of the present study was to evaluate E-cadherin, whose expression remains poorly understood in the intercellular adhesion of metastatic breast cancer cells in bone, the most prevalent site for metastatic growth. MATERIALS AND METHODS An immunohistochemical staining method was used for the localization of E-cadherin protein in tissue biopsy(More)
BACKGROUND Glutathione S-transferase Pi (GSTPi) expression is one of the factors, which is known to be associated with development of resistance to chemotherapeutics in cancer patients, including those with breast cancer. Yet, its expression has been reported to be undetectable in cancer cells in high percent of patients with primary breast cancer. However,(More)
Progress in our understanding of heterotypic cellular interaction in the tumor microenvironment, which is recognized to play major roles in cancer progression, has been hampered due to unavailability of an appropriate in vitro co-culture model. The aim of this study was to generate an in vitro 3-dimensional human breast cancer model, which consists of(More)
Many research programs use well-characterized tumor cell lines as tumor models for in vitro studies. Because tumor cells grown as three-dimensional (3-D) structures have been shown to behave more like tumors in vivo than do cells growing in monolayer culture, a growing number of investigators now use tumor cell spheroids as models. Single cell type(More)