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Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program has addressed both issues through the FERET database of facial images and the establishment of the FERET tests. To date, 14,126(More)
Two critical performance characterizations of biometric algorithms, including face recognition, are identiication and veriication. In face recognition, FERET is the de facto standard evaluation methodology. Identiication performance of face recognition algorithms on the FERET tests has been previously reported. In this paper we report on veriication(More)
Advances in residual vector quantization (RVQ) are surveyed. Definitions of joint encoder optimality and joint decoder optimality are discussed. Design techniques for RVQs with large numbers of stages and generally different encoder and decoder codebooks are elaborated and extended. Fixed-rate RVQs, and variable-rate RVQs that employ entropy coding are(More)
SUMMARY Pain is a complex behavior process, the anatomy and physiology of which is not completely understood, and is subject to continuous exploration and research. Following on the heels of Melzack and Wall's gate control theory of pain (1965), Shealey et al., in 1967, were the first to implant stimulation electrodes over the dorsal columns in an attempt(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated neurologic disease in which acute inflammatory events early in the disease course contribute to subsequent neurologic disability. The early relapsing inflammatory phase is followed by a progressive degenerative phase in which the frequency of acute inflammatory attacks diminishes but progressive loss of(More)
INTRODUCTION The Neuromodulation Appropriateness Consensus Committee (NACC) of the International Neuromodulation Society (INS) evaluated evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of neurostimulation to treat chronic pain, chronic critical limb ischemia, and refractory angina and recommended appropriate clinical applications. METHODS The NACC used(More)
OBJECTIVE To establish applicability, the recently proposed International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) consensus on drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) requires testing in clinical and research settings. This study evaluates the reliability and validity of these criteria in a clinical population. METHODS In phase I, two independent evaluators reviewed 97(More)
BACKGROUND Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) I is a debilitating neuropathic pain disorder characterized by burning pain and allodynia. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective in the treatment of CRPS I in the medium term but its long-term efficacy and ability to improve functional status remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of(More)
BACKGROUND Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the leading cause of neurological disability among young and middle-aged adults. One of the most devastating consequences of MS in this relatively young population group is unemployment. Although certain demographic and disease factors have been associated with employment, few studies have examined the contribution of(More)