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Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program has addressed both issues through the FERET database of facial images and the establishment of the FERET tests. To date, 14,126(More)
Two critical performance characterizations of biometric algorithms, including face recognition, are identiication and veriication. In face recognition, FERET is the de facto standard evaluation methodology. Identiication performance of face recognition algorithms on the FERET tests has been previously reported. In this paper we report on veriication(More)
Advances in residual vector quantization (RVQ) are surveyed. Definitions of joint encoder optimality and joint decoder optimality are discussed. Design techniques for RVQs with large numbers of stages and generally different encoder and decoder codebooks are elaborated and extended. Fixed-rate RVQs, and variable-rate RVQs that employ entropy coding are(More)
SUMMARY Pain is a complex behavior process, the anatomy and physiology of which is not completely understood, and is subject to continuous exploration and research. Following on the heels of Melzack and Wall's gate control theory of pain (1965), Shealey et al., in 1967, were the first to implant stimulation electrodes over the dorsal columns in an attempt(More)
Patients with worsening relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS), secondary progressive MS, and progressive relapsing MS are potential candidates for treatment with mitoxantrone. Early identification of these patients is essential because there is emerging evidence that early and aggressive treatment might delay or limit long-term disability. Treatment(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated neurologic disease in which acute inflammatory events early in the disease course contribute to subsequent neurologic disability. The early relapsing inflammatory phase is followed by a progressive degenerative phase in which the frequency of acute inflammatory attacks diminishes but progressive loss of(More)
BACKGROUND Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) I is a debilitating neuropathic pain disorder characterized by burning pain and allodynia. Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is effective in the treatment of CRPS I in the medium term but its long-term efficacy and ability to improve functional status remains controversial. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the ability of(More)
Two of the most critical requirements in support of producing reliable face-recognition systems are a large database of facial images and a testing procedure to evaluate systems. The Face Recognition Technology (FERET) program has addressed both issues through the FERET database of facial images and the establishment of the FERET tests. In this paper, we(More)
Two key performance characterization of biometric algorithms (face recognition in particular) are (1) verification performance and (2) and performance as a function of database size and composition. This characterization is required for developing robust face recognition algorithms and for successfully transitioning algorithms from the laboratory to real(More)