Sydney Levitus

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[1] We provide estimates of the warming of the world ocean for 1955–2008 based on historical data not previously available, additional modern data, correcting for instrumental biases of bathythermograph data, and correcting or excluding some Argo float data. The strong interdecadal variability of global ocean heat content reported previously by us is(More)
[1] Quality controlled oceanographic profile salinity measurements from the World Ocean Database 2001 (WOD01) were used to calculate linear trends of zonally averaged salinity anomalies for running five year periods from 1955–1959 through 1994–1998 for the World Ocean and the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Ocean basins from the surface to 3000 meters depth.(More)
We compared the temporal variability of the heat content of the world ocean, of the global atmosphere, and of components of Earth's cryosphere during the latter half of the 20th century. Each component has increased its heat content (the atmosphere and the ocean) or exhibited melting (the cryosphere). The estimated increase of observed global ocean heat(More)
The World Ocean Database (WOD) is the most comprehensive global ocean profile-plankton database available internationally without restriction. All data are in one well-documented format and are available both on DVDs for a minimal charge and on-line without charge. The latest DVD version of the WOD is the World Ocean Database 2009 (WOD09). All data in the(More)
Analyses of historical ocean temperature data at a depth of 125 meters in the North Atlantic Ocean indicate that from 1950 to 1990 the subtropical and subarctic gyres exhibited linear trends that were opposite in phase. In addition, multivariate analyses of yearly mean temperature anomaly fields between 20 degrees N and 70 degrees N in the North Atlantic(More)
We document the history and progress of two international ocean data management projects. The “Global Oceanographic Data Archaeology and Rescue” project was initiated in 1993 under the auspices of the UNESCO Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC). The project has the goal of locating (archaeology) and digitizing or copying to modern electronic(More)
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