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Acute leptin administration results in a depolarization and concomitant increase in the firing rate of a subpopulation of arcuate proopiomelanocortin (POMC) cells. This rapid activation of POMC cells has been implicated as a cellular correlate of leptin effects on energy balance. In contrast to leptin, insulin inhibits the activity of some POMC neurons.(More)
Studies in humans and rodents indicate that a minimum amount of stored energy is required for normal pubertal development. The adipocyte-derived hormone leptin is a key metabolic signal to the neuroendocrine reproductive axis. Humans and mice lacking leptin or the leptin receptor (LepR) (ob/ob and db/db mice, respectively) are infertile and fail to enter(More)
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a hepatokine that acts as a global starvation signal to modulate fuel partitioning and metabolism and repress growth; however, the site of action of these diverse effects remains unclear. FGF21 signals through a heteromeric cell-surface receptor composed of one of three FGF receptors (FGFR1c, FGFR2c or FGFR3c) in(More)
Necdin and Magel2 are related proteins inactivated in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), a sporadic chromosomal deletion disorder. We demonstrate that necdin and Magel2 bind to and prevent proteasomal degradation of Fez1, a fasciculation and elongation protein implicated in axonal outgrowth and kinesin-mediated transport, and also bind to the Bardet-Biedl(More)
SIRT1 is a nicotinamide adenosine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase that orchestrates key metabolic adaptations to nutrient deprivation in peripheral tissues. SIRT1 is induced also in the brain by reduced energy intake. However, very little is known about SIRT1 distribution and the biochemical phenotypes of SIRT1-expressing cells in the neuraxis. Unknown(More)
Chronic low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity and thought to contribute to the development of obesity-related insulin resistance. Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) is a key mediator of pro-inflammatory responses. Mice lacking Tlr4s are protected from diet-induced insulin resistance and inflammation; however, which Tlr4-expressing cells mediate this(More)
Physiological conditions of low leptin levels like those observed during negative energy balance are usually characterized by the suppression of luteinizing hormone (LH) secretion and fertility. Leptin administration restores LH levels and reproductive function. Leptin action on LH secretion is thought to be mediated by the brain. However, the neuronal(More)
necdin (Ndn) is one of a cluster of genes deleted in the neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome. necdin is upregulated during neuronal differentiation and is thought to play a role in cell cycle arrest in terminally differentiated neurons. Most necdin-deficient Ndn(tm2Stw) mutant pups carrying a targeted replacement of Ndn with a lacZ reporter(More)
Vagal afferents regulate energy balance by providing a link between the brain and postprandial signals originating from the gut. In the current study, we investigated melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) expression in the nodose ganglion, where the cell bodies of vagal sensory afferents reside. By using a line of mice expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)(More)
Recent reports of adverse psychiatric events from seemingly different types of weight loss therapies highlight a previously underestimated overlap between CNS circuits that control energy balance and those that regulate mood. In this Perspective, we discuss a few potential brain sites where the homeostatic and the hedonic pathways may intersect and suggest(More)