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The Association for European Paediatric Cardiology, the Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and the European Association for Cardiothoracic Surgery, have recently published detailed hierarchical listings for the description of ventricular septal defects. This review details the anatomic basis for the European codes, illustrating the phenotypic features of the(More)
In our previous review of the phenotypic features of ventricular septal defects, we concentrated on the perimembranous variant, showing how its distinguishing feature, as viewed from the right ventricle, was fibrous continuity in its postero-inferior rim between the leaflets of the aortic and tricuspid valves. In this second review, we focus on the(More)
Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), one of the most common congenital heart defects, is an abnormal persistence of a patent lumen in the arterial duct due to an arrest of the natural process of closure after it has served its function as a vital channel in fetal circulation. The histological feature of the arterial duct is entirely different from its adjoining(More)
BACKGROUND In 2007 and 2008, the beer and wine tax in Hong Kong was halved and then abolished, resulting in an increase of alcohol consumption. The prevalence of the Internet and a high blogging rate by adolescents and adults present a unique opportunity to study drinking patterns by infodemiology. OBJECTIVE To assess and explain the online use of(More)
OBJECTIVE To study the relative risk (RR) of mortalities of cerebro-cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in Guangzhou workers with hypertension. METHOD Prospective cohort study was conducted in 78,379 workers, aged >or= 35, from 399 factories. Cox regression model were mainly used for data analysis. RESULTS (1) There were 48,705 male and 29,674 female workers(More)
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