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Histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a salivary human antimicrobial peptide that is toxic to the opportunistic yeast Candida albicans. Fungicidal activity of Hst 5 requires intracellular translocation and accumulation to a threshold concentration for it to disrupt cellular processes. Previously, we observed that total cytosolic levels of Hst 5 were gradually reduced from(More)
Pathogenic mechanisms of Candida glabrata in oral candidiasis, especially because of its inability to form hyphae, are understudied. Since both Candida albicans and C. glabrata are frequently co-isolated in oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we examined their co-adhesion in vitro and observed adhesion of C. glabrata only to C. albicans hyphae microscopically.(More)
Perception of external stimuli and generation of an appropriate response are crucial for host colonization by pathogens. In pathogenic fungi, mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate dimorphism, biofilm/mat formation, and virulence. Signaling mucins, characterized by a heavily glycosylated extracellular domain, a transmembrane domain, and a(More)
Candida albicans causes candidiasis, secretes farnesol, and switches from yeast to hyphae to escape from macrophages after phagocytosis. However, before escape, macrophages may respond to C. albicans' pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) through toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and dectin-1 receptors by expressing cytokines involved in adaptive(More)
Candida albicans is a major etiological organism for oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), while salivary histatin 5 (Hst 5) is a human fungicidal protein that protects the oral cavity from OPC. C. albicans senses its environment by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation that can also modulate the activity of some antifungal drugs, including Hst 5.(More)
Candida albicans, a commensal fungus of the oral microbiome, causes oral candidiasis in humans with localized or systemic immune deficiencies. Secreted aspartic proteinases (Saps) are a family of 10 related proteases and are virulence factors due to their proteolytic activity, as well as their roles in adherence and colonization of host tissues. We found(More)
Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is caused by the opportunistic fungi Candida albicans and is prevalent in immunocompromised patients, individuals with dry mouth, or patients with prolonged antibiotic therapies that reduce oral commensal bacteria. Human salivary histatins, including histatin 5 (Hst 5), are small cationic proteins that are the major source of(More)
Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen in humans. It is a polymorphic fungus: it can live as yeasts, hyphae, or pseudohyphae. Biotin is required for cell growth and fatty acid metabolism because it is used as a cofactor for carboxylases such as acetyl-CoA carboxylase, and pyruvate carboxylase. In addition, we have discovered that biotin is(More)
Salivary protein histatin 5 (Hst 5) is fungicidal toward Candida albicans, the causative agent of oropharyngeal candidiasis. However, its activity in saliva is compromised by salivary protease-mediated degradation and interaction with salivary salts. Hst 5 has also been shown to bind various metals in saliva-namely, Zn, Cu, and Ni. Surprisingly,(More)
The oral cavity is a unique niche where Candida albicans infections occur in immunocompetent as well as immunosuppressed individuals. Here we critically review the significance of human innate immune response in preventing oral candidiasis. One important line of defense against oropharyngeal candidiasis is the oral microbiota that prevents infection by(More)