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Gill arches and the gill rakers of a sluggish, carnivorous catfish, Rita rita, show significant differences of their surface ultrastructure, which are recognized adaptive modifications in relation to food and feeding ecology of fish. Gill rakers on the first and second pairs of gill arches are borne on the oral side and are long and stout at the(More)
The innate immune system of fish is considered first line of defense against a broad spectrum of pathogens. Being a component of innate immunity and lying at the interface between fish and the aqueous environment, skin mucus plays a frontier role in protecting fish from infections. In the present study, skin mucus of Cirrhinus mrigala, Labeo rohita, Catla(More)
Waterlogging causes extensive damage to maize crops in tropical and subtropical regions. The identification of tolerance genes and their interactions at the molecular level will be helpful to engineer tolerant genotypes. A whole-genome transcriptome assay revealed the specific role of genes in response to waterlogging stress in susceptible and tolerant(More)
Earlier studies were focused on the genetics of temperate and tropical maize under drought. We identified genetic loci and their association with functional mechanisms in 240 accessions of subtropical maize using a high-density marker set under water stress. Out of 61 significant SNPs (11 were false-discovery-rate-corrected associations), identified across(More)
Maize is an increasingly important food crop in southeast Asia. The elucidation of its genetic architecture, accomplished by exploring quantitative trait loci and useful alleles in various lines across numerous breeding programs, is therefore of great interest. The present study aimed to characterize subtropical maize lines using high-quality SNPs(More)
A genomewide transcriptome assay of two subtropical genotypes of maize was used to observe the expression of genes at seedling stage of drought stress. The number of genes expressed differentially was greater in HKI1532 (a drought tolerant genotype) than in PC3 (a drought sensitive genotype), indicating primary differences at the transcriptional level in(More)
This study examined changes in tobacco craving, withdrawal, and affect as correlates of efficacy in a phase-2 clinical trial of varenicline for smokeless tobacco dependence in India. Smokeless tobacco users (N = 237) at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences were randomized to placebo or varenicline. Abstinence was defined as cotinine-verified(More)
Presence of carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in the skin mucus of Cirrhinus mrigala was investigated. CbE activity in skin mucus showed higher substrate preference for α-naphthyl acetate over p-nitrophenyl acetate. Four CbE isozymes—CbE-1, CbE-2, CbE-3, and CbE-4 were observed in skin mucus during zymography. The isozyme CbE-4 was characterized as typical(More)
The validity of self-reported tobacco use is often questioned given the potential for underestimation of use. This study used data from a double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of varenicline for smokeless tobacco dependence in India to evaluate the accuracy of self-reported smokeless tobacco cessation using biochemical validation procedures and to(More)
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