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Lyme arthritis results from colonization of joints by Borrelia burgdorferi and the ensuing host response. Using gene array-based differential analysis of B. burgdorferi gene expression and quantitative reverse trancription-polymerase chain reaction, we identified two paralogous spirochete genes, bmpA and bmpB, that are preferentially up-regulated in mouse(More)
Borrelia burgdorferi spirochetes that do not cause arthritis or carditis were developed and used to investigate Lyme disease pathogenesis. A clonal isolate of B. burgdorferi N40 (cN40), which induces disease in C3H/HeN (C3H) mice, was repeatedly passaged in vitro to generate nonpathogenic spirochetes. The passage 75 isolate (N40-75) was infectious for C3H(More)
Infection of neutrophil precursors with Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the causative agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, results in downregulation of the gp91(phox) gene, a key component of NADPH oxidase. We now show that repression of gp91(phox) gene transcription is associated with reduced expression of interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and PU.1 in(More)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum, the agent of human granulocytic anaplasmosis, is an unusual obligate intracellular pathogen that persists in neutrophils. A. phagocytophilum increases the binding of a repressor, CCAAT displacement protein (CDP), to the gp91(phox) promoter, thereby diminishing the host oxidative burst. We now show that A. phagocytophilum infection(More)
The role of interleukin (IL)-11, a cytokine with potent anti-inflammatory properties, in murine Lyme disease was investigated. Borrelia burgdorferi-infected mice treated with IL-11 developed less arthritis than did control animals. In contrast, IL-11 blocking antibodies increased Lyme arthritis. Murine Lyme carditis was not affected by either IL-11 or IL-11(More)
Recently, interleukin (IL)-6 was shown to be one of the earliest factors that trigger the differentiation of naive T cells into effector Th2 cells in vitro. Lyme arthritis was studied in IL-6-deficient mice, since joint inflammation is influenced by the T helper cell response against Borrelia burgdorferi. Arthritis incidence increased in B.(More)
The administration of interleukin-12 (IL-12) antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi-infected C3H/HeN-scid mice increased the severity of acute Lyme arthritis. These results contrasted with the reduction of Lyme arthritis by IL-12 antibodies in immunocompetent animals. These data suggest that downregulation of innate immunity in SCID mice in the absence of B-(More)
Spirochete adaptation in vivo is associated with preferential Borrelia burgdorferi gene expression. In this paper, we show that the administration of B. burgdorferi-immune sera to IFN-gammaR-deficient mice that have been infected with B. burgdorferi N40 for 4 days causes spirochete clearance. In contrast, immune sera-mediated clearance of B. burgdorferi N40(More)
Clonal Borrelia burgdorferi N40 (cN40) passaged 75 times in vitro (N40-75) infects mice but does not cause disease. N40-75 passaged 45 times further in vitro (N40-120) was no longer infectious and lacked genes encoded on linear plasmids 38 and 28-1, among other differences. These data suggest that B. burgdorferi cN40, N40-75, and N40-120 have distinct(More)
Cyclooxygenase (Cox) is a key enzyme in the biosynthetic metabolism of prostaglandins. The inducible isoform of Cox-2 has been implicated in inflammation and its specific inhibition can be used to treat noninfectious inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis. Borrelia burgdorferi, the agent of Lyme disease, can induce joint inflammation. Here we(More)