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The mechanism by which cells respond to extracellular stimuli involves a series of signal transduction events across the cell membrane and through the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases are important mediators of signal transduction and play a key role in the regulation of many cellular processes, such as cell growth and(More)
BACKGROUND Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are important mediators of signal transduction from the cell surface to the nucleus and have been implicated in the integration of a variety of physiologic processes in most cells, including neurons. To investigate the possible involvement of MAPKs in schizophrenia, we compared the levels of the MAPK(More)
BACKGROUND We investigated the levels of transcription factors associated with activation of the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway in schizophrenics using postmortem brain samples. These studies were done to determine whether our previous findings of abnormal levels of the MAP kinases in the cerebellar vermis were linked to additional(More)
Despite a growing body of evidence demonstrating that mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathways play an important physiological role in the CNS, little is known about their role and function in various mental disorders including schizophrenia. Our previous studies have shown increased expression of several intermediates of the extracellular(More)
A new class of compounds designed to inhibit membrane-associated glycosyltransferases were synthesized and their biological activities were characterized in liver microsomes and human lymphoma cell lines. These inhibitors are composed of N-acyl phenylaminoalcohol derivatives linked to uridine via different spacers. One inhibitor, termed PP36(More)
The hyaluronan (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE) mediates the endocytotic clearance of HA and other glycosaminoglycans from lymph and blood. Two isoforms of human HARE, 315- and 190-kDa, are highly expressed in sinusoidal endothelial cells of liver, lymph node, and spleen; HARE is also in specialized cells in the eye, heart, brain, and kidney. Here we(More)
The hyaluronic acid (HA) receptor for endocytosis (HARE; also designated stabilin-2 and FEEL-2) mediates systemic clearance of glycosaminoglycans from the circulatory and lymphatic systems via coated pit-mediated uptake. HARE is primarily found as two isoforms (315- and 190-kDa) in sinusoidal endothelial cells of the liver, lymph node, and spleen. Here we(More)
Oxidative stress and inflammation are important pathological mechanisms in many neurodegenerative diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The very low-density lipoprotein receptor knockout mouse (Vldlr-/-) has been identified as a model for AMD and in particular for retinal angiomatous proliferation (RAP). In this study we examined the(More)
We have previously demonstrated elevation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the cerebellum from patients with schizophrenia, an illness that may involve dysfunction of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor. Since the NMDA antagonist, phencyclidine (PCP), produces schizophrenic-like symptoms in humans, and abnormal behavior in(More)
Trehazolin, a new trehalase inhibitor isolated from the culture broth of Micromonospora, was reported to be a highly specific inhibitor for porcine and silk worm trehalases with IC50 values of 5.5 x 10(-9) and 3.7 x 10(-9) M, respectively (O. Ando, H. Satake, K. Itoi, A. Sato, M. Nakajima, S. Takashi, H. Haruyama, Y. Ohkuma, T. Kinoshita, and R. Enokita(More)