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To determine whether the serine/threonine kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B) is activated in vivo by insulin administration in humans, and whether impaired activation of Akt could play a role in insulin resistance, we measured the activity and phosphorylation of Akt isoforms in skeletal muscle from 3 groups of subjects: lean, obese nondiabetic, and(More)
The effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) on metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass were examined in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats. After 6 wk of treatment, ad libitum-fed exenatide-treated (EX) and pair-fed vehicle control (PF) rats had comparable food intake, body weight, hemoglobin A(1c)(More)
Glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 has been implicated in the regulation of multiple cellular physiological processes in skeletal muscle. Selective cell-permeable reversible inhibitors (INHs) of GSK-3 (CT98014 and CHIR98023 [Chiron, Emeryville, CA] and LiCl) were used to evaluate the role of GSK-3 in controlling glucose metabolism. Acute treatment (30 min) of(More)
Insulin signaling pathways potentially involved in regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen synthase were compared in differentiated human muscle cell cultures from nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic patients. Insulin stimulation of glycogen synthase activity as well as phosphorylation of MAPK, p70 S6 kinase, and protein kinase B (Akt) were blocked by the(More)
Chronic exposure (48 h) to glucosamine resulted in a dose-dependent reduction of basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake activities in human skeletal muscle cell cultures from nondiabetic and type 2 diabetic subjects. Insulin responsiveness of uptake was also reduced. There was no change in total membrane expression of either GLUT1, GLUT3, or GLUT4(More)
To determine the effects of troglitazone on abnormal skeletal muscle glucose metabolism, muscle cultures from type II diabetic patients were grown for 4-6 weeks and then fused for 4 days either without or with troglitazone (1-5 micrograms/mL; chronic studies) or had troglitazone added for 90 min (1-5 micrograms/mL) at completion of fusion (acute studies).(More)
Calcium pterins have been shown to be significant immunotherapeutic agents in models of breast cancer, hepatitis B, and tuberculosis (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin mycobacteria). These compunds modulate the immuno-enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) and the blood levels of several identified inflammatory cytokines. Recent research into the pathology of(More)
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