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To determine whether the serine/threonine kinase Akt (also known as protein kinase B) is activated in vivo by insulin administration in humans, and whether impaired activation of Akt could play a role in insulin resistance, we measured the activity and phosphorylation of Akt isoforms in skeletal muscle from 3 groups of subjects: lean, obese nondiabetic, and(More)
In rodents, weight reduction after peptide YY[3-36] (PYY[3-36]) administration may be due largely to decreased food consumption. Effects on other processes affecting energy balance (energy expenditure, fuel partitioning, gut nutrient uptake) remain poorly understood. We examined whether s.c. infusion of 1 mg/(kg x d) PYY[3-36] (for up to 7 d) increased(More)
The effects of the incretin mimetic exenatide (exendin-4) on metabolic parameters, insulin sensitivity, and beta-cell mass were examined in nondiabetic, insulin-resistant obese fa/fa Zucker rats. After 6 wk of treatment, ad libitum-fed exenatide-treated (EX) and pair-fed vehicle control (PF) rats had comparable food intake, body weight, hemoglobin A(1c)(More)
Myoblasts from human skeletal muscle were isolated from needle biopsy samples of vastus lateralis and fused to differentiated multinucleated myotubes. Specific high-affinity insulin and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) binding, glucose transporter proteins GLUT1 and GLUT4, glycogen synthase and pyruvate dehydrogenase proteins, and their specific mRNAs(More)
We examined the activity of the rate-limiting enzyme for hexosamine biosynthesis, glutamine:fructose-6-phosphate amidotransferase (GFA) in human skeletal muscle cultures (HSMC), from 17 nondiabetic control and 13 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes. GFA activity was assayed from HSMC treated with low (5 mM) or high (20 mM) glucose and low (22 pM)(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS To determine the independent and potentially synergistic effects of agonists for PPAR gamma and RXR on glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as gene expression, in human skeletal muscle cell cultures. METHODS Fully differentiated myotubes from non-diabetic subjects and subjects with Type II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus were(More)
An association between glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK3) in skeletal muscle and insulin resistance has been demonstrated in type 2 diabetic patients. In addition, inhibition of GSK3 improves insulin action. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of the alpha-isoform of GSK3 in insulin resistance in human skeletal muscle cells from(More)
To determine whether glycogen synthase (GS) activity remains impaired in skeletal muscle of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) patients or can be normalized after prolonged culture, needle biopsies of vastus lateralis were obtained from 8 healthy nondiabetic control (ND) and 11 NIDDM subjects. After 4-6 wk growth and 4 d fusion in media(More)
Glycogen synthase (GS) activity is reduced in skeletal muscle of type 2 diabetes, despite normal protein expression, consistent with altered GS regulation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) is involved in regulation (phosphorylation and deactivation) of GS. To access the potential role of GSK-3 in insulin resistance and reduced GS activity in type 2(More)
Troglitazone, besides improving insulin action in insulin-resistant subjects, is also a specific ligand for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma). To determine whether troglitazone might enhance insulin action by stimulation of PPARgamma gene expression in muscle, total PPARgamma messenger RNA (mRNA), and protein(More)