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BACKGROUND Stroke is a multisystemic disorder that includes mechanisms of thrombosis and neurotoxic coupling. Key metabolites of the molecular cascade following biochemical events appear simultaneously in brain tissue, the blood-brain barrier, and brain vessels, activating the immune system and generating autoantibodies (aAbs) to brain-specific antigens. We(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Predicting stroke using biomarkers would enable clinicians to help prevent stroke or mitigate damage. Several stroke biomarkers have been investigated but none has shown near term predictive value. METHODS We studied patients presenting with a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) to determine whether serum levels of(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE The goal of this study was to compare the predictive ability of S100B, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antibodies (NR2Ab) and C-reactive protein (CRP) for neurological deficits after cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). METHODS We investigated 557 high-risk adult patients who underwent coronary artery or valve(More)
People are very likely to start psychoactive drug use during adolescence, an earlier onset being associated with a higher risk of developing addiction later in life. In experiment I, Pre- (postnatal day (pnd) 23-35), Mid- (pnd 36-48), or Post- (pnd 49-61) adolescent mice underwent a restricted-drinking period (2 h/day for 12 days), one bottle containing(More)
OBJECTIVES α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor (AMPAR) peptide, a product of the proteolytic degradation of AMPA receptors in healthy nonathletes and athletes with concussions, is assessed. The detection of AMPAR peptide in conjunction with neuropsychological testing and neuroimaging is undertaken. SUBJECTS Persons (n = 124,(More)
The interactions existing between substance P- and dopamine-positive neurons, notably in the basal ganglia, suggest that substance P may have therapeutic use in treatment of Parkinson's disease characterized by impaired dopaminergic transmission. The effects of intracerebroventricularly administered substance P were tested on the levels of dopamine and its(More)
Several groups of brain receptors are involved in the mechanisms underlying the development of opiate addiction, but the interactions occurring between these neuroreceptors and the immune system, including potential autoimmune responses, remain poorly understood. We studied in rats the effects of repeated administration of different psychotropic drugs on(More)
The role of NMDA receptors in molecular mechanisms of neurotoxicity was investigated using rat models of global and focal cerebral ischemia. Expression of NR2A and NR2B receptor mRNAs up-regulated in cortex after 3 h of reperfusion following middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). This effect was accompanied by an increase in NR2A and NR2B(More)
BACKGROUND The acute assessment of patients with suspected ischemic stroke remains challenging. The use of brain biomarker assays may improve the early diagnosis of ischemic stroke. The main goal of the study was to evaluate whether the NR2 peptide, a product of the proteolytic degradation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, can differentiate acute(More)