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BACKGROUND Fine particulate matter (PM2.5) has been linked to cardiovascular disease, possibly via accelerated atherosclerosis. We examined associations between the progression of the intima-medial thickness (IMT) of the common carotid artery, as an indicator of atherosclerosis, and long-term PM2.5 concentrations in participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study(More)
BACKGROUND In air pollution time-series studies, the temporal pattern of the association of fine particulate matter (PM2.5; particulate matter ≤ 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter) and health end points has been observed to vary by disease category. The lag pattern of PM2.5 chemical constituents has not been well investigated, largely because daily data have(More)
BACKGROUND Studies estimating health effects of long-term air pollution exposure often use a two-stage approach: building exposure models to assign individual-level exposures, which are then used in regression analyses. This requires accurate exposure modeling and careful treatment of exposure measurement error. OBJECTIVE To illustrate the importance of(More)
Epidemiologic evidence associates particulate air pollution with cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. The biological mechanisms underlying these associations and the relationship between ambient levels and retained particles in the lung remain uncertain. We examined the parenchymal particle content of 11 autopsy lungs from never-smoking female residents(More)
  • J L Wright, J P Sun, S Vedal
  • 1997
We wanted to examine the longitudinal effects of chronic cigarette smoke exposure, and to determine whether the chronic alterations in pulmonary function induced by long-term cigarette smoke exposure in an animal model could be predicted by initial or early alterations in function. A group of Sprague Dawley rats was exposed to the smoke of 7 cigarettes x(More)
OBJECTIVE We wanted to determine minimal tube current (mAs) required for consistently good image quality on conventional 10-mm collimation chest CT and effect of tube current reduction on detection of mediastinal and lung abnormalities. Tube current reduction is desirable to reduce patient radiation dose. SUBJECTS AND METHODS Prospectively, 30 consecutive(More)
We prospectively recruited patients admitted to the hospital with severe asthma to comprehensively evaluate the association of historical and physiologic features with the risk of near-fatal asthma (NFA). A case-control study design was used. All patients admitted with NFA (cases) were identified prospectively and compared with asthma patients admitted(More)
The concentration-response relationship between daily ambient inhalable particle (particulate matter less than or equal to 10 micro m; PM(10)) concentrations and daily mortality typically shows no evidence of a threshold concentration below which no relationship is observed. However, the power to assess a relationship at very low concentrations of PM(10)(More)
STUDY OBJECTIVES Identification of acid-fast bacilli (AFB) in the sputum smear at the completion of tuberculosis therapy is in some settings considered evidence of treatment failure. However, some patients with pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) will have positive smear results with negative sputum culture results at the end of therapy. The objectives of this(More)
To assess the role of emphysema on the hyperinflation in chronic asthma, we studied 20 subjects with irreversible airflow limitation. Ten of the subjects had asthma and had never smoked; the other ten were cigarette smokers. Pulmonary function testing and chest computed tomography (CT) scans were performed on all subjects. Emphysema was graded using a score(More)