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OBJECTIVE To examine whether electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) could modulate tumor necrosis factor (TNF)alpha levels in patients with depressive disorders. METHOD Plasma levels of TNFalpha were analyzed in 23 depressed patients, mainly with severe depressive disorders, and in 15 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. Fifteen depressed patients were(More)
BACKGROUND We compared the efficacy of two neuroleptics with different receptor profiles (zuclopenthixol and haloperidol) in learning disabled patients with behavioural disturbance. METHOD A double-blind crossover study (2 x 8 weeks; n = 34), interrupted by a two-week single-blind washout period, was employed. Assessments included the Schedule for(More)
Epidemiological findings indicate a connection between depressive symptoms and changes in status of the immune system in depressed patients. This raises the possibility of causative connections. Theories on mechanisms for interactions between immune and affective systems – directly and via endocrine system – are evolving. Such hypothesized causative(More)
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