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BACKGROUND The molecular mechanisms by which physical training improves peripheral and coronary artery disease are poorly understood. Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are thought to exert beneficial effects on atherosclerosis, angiogenesis, and vascular repair. METHODS AND RESULTS To study the effect of physical activity on the bone(More)
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) may exert direct effects on vascular cells and beneficially influence endothelial dysfunction. Because reactive oxygen species (ROS) may lead to vascular damage and dysfunction, we investigated the effect of atorvastatin on ROS production and the underlying mechanisms in vitro and in vivo.(More)
Pathological conditions that predispose to cardiovascular events, such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and diabetes, are associated with oxidative stress. These observations and further data derived from a plethora of investigations provided accumulating evidence that oxidative stress is decisively involved in the pathogenesis of endothelial(More)
Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and can be effectively influenced by radical scavenging enzyme activity and expression. The vasoprotective effects of estrogens may be related to antioxidative properties. Therefore, effects of 17beta-estradiol on production of reactive oxygen species and radical scavenging enzymes(More)
Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation as well as proinflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) are involved in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. The detailed underlying mechanisms including interactions between inflammatory agonists and the renin-angiotensin system are poorly understood. Stimulation of cultured rat(More)
3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) significantly reduce cardiovascular mortality associated with hypercholesterolemia. There is evidence that statins exert beneficial effects in part through direct effects on vascular cells independent of lowering plasma cholesterol. We characterized the effect of a 30-day(More)
BACKGROUND Postmenopausal estrogen deficiency is associated with an increased cardiovascular risk, hypertension, and oxidative stress. Angiotensin type 1 (AT(1)) receptor regulation is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. To characterize vascular function, oxidative stress, and AT(1) receptor regulation during estrogen deficiency, ovariectomized(More)
Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by abnormalities in vasoreactivity and is a marker of the extent of atherosclerosis. Cellular repair by circulating progenitor cells of ongoing vascular injury may be essential for vascular integrity and function and may limit abnormalities in vasoreactivity. Apolipoprotein E-deficient (apoE-/-) mice were(More)
OBJECTIVE Sedentary lifestyle is associated with increased cardiovascular events. The underlying molecular mechanisms are incompletely understood. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. An important source of vascular ROS is the NADPH oxidase. METHODS AND RESULTS C57BL6 mice were subjected to regular(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor activation is potentially involved in the multifactorial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. METHODS AND RESULTS Apolipoprotein E-deficient (ApoE-/-) mice were crossed with AT1A receptor-deficient (AT1-/-) mice to obtain homozygous double-knockout animals (ApoE-/--AT1-/- mice). Wild-type (C57BL/6J), ApoE-/-,(More)