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To improve the efficiency of CO(2) fixation in C(3) photosynthesis, C(4)-cycle genes were overexpressed in potato and tobacco plants either individually or in combination. Overexpression of the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) gene (ppc) from Corynebacterium glutamicum (cppc) or from potato (stppc, deprived of the phosphorylation site) in potato(More)
Optimization of processes can yield a variety of answers, depending not only on the objective of the optimization but also on the constraints that de®ne the problem. Within the context of thermodynamic optimization, the role of the constraints is particularly important because, among other things, their choice can make some objectives either equivalent or(More)
Symbiotic dinitrogen fixation of legume nodules is fuelled by phloem-imported carbohydrates. These have to pass several cell layers to reach cells infected with Rhizobium bacteroids. It is unclear whether apoplastic steps are involved in carbohyd-rate translocation within the nodule. Protoplasts were isolated from the infected and uninfected cells of the(More)
All energy transformation processes occurring in reality are irreversible and in many cases these irreversibilities must be included in a realistic description of such processes. Endoreversible thermodynamics is a non-equilibrium approach in this direction by viewing a system as a network of internally reversible (endore-versible) subsystems exchanging(More)
In the small domesticated ruminants the nucleus of the hypoglossal nerve is situated in close relationship to the median line in the middle of the elongated medulla. The nucleus is divided by the obex into a rostral and a caudal portion. In the sheep, four distinct subnuclei can be recognized, whereas in the dwarf goat great variations in the arrangement of(More)
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