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Hepatitis E has been considered to be a travel-associated, acute, self-limiting liver disease that causes fulminant hepatic failure in specific high-risk groups only. However, hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can also be acquired in industrialized countries-HEV genotype 3 infection is a zoonosis, with pigs and rodents serving as animal reservoirs. In(More)
BACKGROUND At least 17% of the population in Germany has been infected with the hepatitis E virus (HEV); thus, HEV infections are more frequent than was previously assumed. However, fewer than 500 HEV infections were reported to the Robert Koch Institute in 2013. METHOD Review of pertinent literature retrieved by a selective search in PubMed. RESULTS(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can cause chronic hepatitis in recipients of solid organ transplants. However, the factors that contribute to chronic infection and the outcomes of these patients are incompletely understood. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 17 centers from Europe and the United States that described the(More)
In mammals, the osmolality of the extracellular fluid (ECF) is highly stable despite radical changes in salt/water intake and excretion. Afferent systems are required to detect hypo- or hyperosmotic shifts in the ECF to trigger homeostatic control of osmolality. In humans, a pressor reflex is triggered by simply drinking water which may be mediated by(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a major cause of acute hepatitis as well as chronic infection in immunocompromised individuals; however, in vivo infection models are limited. The aim of this study was to establish a small animal model to improve our understanding of HEV replication mechanisms and permit the development of effective(More)
Acute cellular rejection (ACR) occurs frequently after liver transplantation and can usually be controlled. Triggering of allospecific immune responses and lack of immunoregulation are currently suggested as a cause of ACR, but there are no investigations of intrahepatic immune responses during ACR. Therefore we prospectively analyzed the intrahepatic T(More)
BACKGROUND Pregnancies are an issue difficult to manage in recipients of solid organ grafts. Whereas most studies report on individual women who have received transplants, we retrospectively studied all gestations of women with liver (LT) or kidney transplants (KT) from October 1988 to August 2010 at one major transplantation center in Germany and compared(More)
BACKGROUND Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse Imaging (ARFI) is an innovative elastography for staging of liver fibrosis. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of different probes to perform ARFI at different insertion depths. METHODS In a prospective study, 89 chronic HCV infected patients underwent ARFI elastography using both available probes (c-ARFI:(More)
BACKGROUND Acoustic radiation force impulse imaging is used to assess stages of liver fibrosis. The aim of our study was to evaluate liver stiffness changes in patients with biliary obstruction with or without sclerosing cholangitis after biliary drainage. METHODS A total of 71 patients were enrolled in this prospective study (cohort N=51, control group(More)
OBJECTIVE Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection can take chronic courses in immunocompromised patients potentially leading to liver cirrhosis and liver failure. Ribavirin (RBV) is currently the only treatment option for many patients, but treatment failure can occur which has been associated with the appearance of a distinct HEV polymerase mutant (G1634R).(More)