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OBJECTIVE Pulmonary hypertension (PH), defined as a pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) >2.5 Wood units (WU) and (or) a transpulmonary gradient (TPG) >12 mmHg, is an established risk factor for mortality in heart transplantation. Elevated PVR in heart transplant candidates can be reduced using a left ventricular assist device (LVAD), and LVAD is proposed to(More)
Acute cardiovascular dysfunction occurs perioperatively in more than 20% of cardiosurgical patients, yet current acute heart failure (HF) classification is not applicable to this period. Indicators of major perioperative risk include unstable coronary syndromes, decompensated HF, significant arrhythmias and valvular disease. Clinical risk factors include(More)
INTRODUCTION Estimation of kidney function in critically ill patients with acute kidney injury (AKI), is important for appropriate dosing of drugs and adjustment of therapeutic strategies, but challenging due to fluctuations in kidney function, creatinine metabolism and fluid balance. Data on the agreement between estimating and gold standard methods to(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), a thiol-containing anti-oxidant, on renal function and morphology, and biomarkers of oxidative stress, in rats subjected to renal ischaemia-reperfusion (IR). METHODS Sprague-Dawley rats underwent unilateral nephrectomy and either contralateral renal IR (40 min of(More)
INTRODUCTION Acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a major complication after cardiovascular surgery, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Diuretic agents are frequently used to improve urine output and to facilitate fluid management in these patients. Mannitol, an osmotic diuretic, is used in the perioperative setting in the belief that it(More)
BACKGROUND We determined the effects of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer, on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with LV hypertrophy. METHODS AND RESULTS In this prospective, randomized, blinded study, 23 patients received either levosimendan (0.1 and 0.2 microg x kg(-1) x min(-1); n=12) or placebo (n=11) after aortic valve replacement(More)
Renal dysfunction is common in clinical settings in which cardiac function is compromised such as heart failure, cardiac surgery or sepsis, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Levosimendan is a calcium sensitizer and potassium channel opener used in the treatment of acute heart failure. This review describes the effects of the inodilator(More)
Renal oxygenation is defi ned as the relationship between renal oxygen delivery (DO 2) and renal oxygen consumption (VO 2) and it can easily be shown that the inverse of this relationship is equivalent to renal extraction of O 2 (O 2 Ex). An increase in renal O 2 Ex means that renal DO 2 has decreased in relation to renal VO 2 , i. e., renal oxyge-nation is(More)
BACKGROUND Myocardial dysfunction is recognized in sepsis. We hypothesized that mechanical left (LV) and right (RV) ventricular function analysed using 2-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography in a cohort of early severe sepsis or septic shock patients, would be different to that of a group of critically ill, non-septic patients. METHODS Critically(More)
Background—We determined the effects of levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer, on left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in patients with LV hypertrophy. Methods and Results—In this prospective, randomized, blinded study, 23 patients received either levosimendan (0.1 and 0.2 ␮g · kg Ϫ1 · min