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OBJECTIVE To determine whether stroke patients with initial increases in arm motor recovery following low-frequency transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (low TENS) treatment go on to show long-term benefits. Also whether the same therapy results in long-term improvements in motor function, spasticity or activities of daily living (ADL). DESIGN A(More)
The object of this study is to determine if the functional motor capacity of the paretic extremity can be improved by stimulation with low intensity low frequency (1.7 Hz) transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (Low-TENS), started 6-12 months after a stroke. Forty-four patients who had a paretic arm as a consequence of their first stroke were included(More)
To analyse the influence of apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype on the extent of white matter lesions (WMLs) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we examined 60 AD patients with magnetic resonance imaging. The WMLs were rated visually in different brain regions. The patients with the APOE genotype sigma4/4 had more extensive WMLs in the deep white matter than patients(More)
Jargonagraphia is known to occur after discrete brain lesions but not in primary degenerative dementia. We report a patient with frontotemporal dementia who developed jargonagraphia and nonfluent aphasia. Written output was graphically preserved but consisted of short words intermingled with abstruse neologisms. MRI showed predominant right frontotemporal(More)
Verb fluency requires self-sustained verb retrieval. The brain correlates of this task are virtually unknown. We investigated the relations between verb and noun (semantic) fluency and regional brain perfusion in subjects with varying degrees of cognitive decline, ranging from very mild subjective impairment to Alzheimer's disease (AD). Data consisted of(More)
A group of 172 mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients and 79 healthy control participants (HC) were tested on simple reaction time (SRT). There was a significant difference between MCI and HC in mean SRT. The test could be partitioned into five segments of 16 trials each, but RT's were not always available for each partition. However, scores from each(More)
To identify components that contribute to word-fluency performance, 126 patients referred to a Memory Clinic for suspected cognitive impairment underwent a neuropsychological examination including the Controlled Oral Word Association test (FAS; Benton & Hamsher, 1976). The number of words produced in the FAS test during six consecutive 10-s periods followed(More)
We assessed verb fluency vs. noun and letter-based fluency in 199 subjects referred for cognitive complaints including Subjective Cognitive Impairment, Mild Cognitive Impairment, and Alzheimer's disease. ANCOVAs and factor analyses identified verb, noun, and letter-based fluency as distinct tasks. Verb fluency performance in Mild Cognitive Impairment(More)
The aim of this study was threefold: (i) to clarify whether letter and category fluency tap different cognitive abilities; (ii) to make diagnostic comparisons and predictions using temporally resolved fluency data; (iii) to challenge and test the widely made assumption that 1-min sum scores are the fluency test measure of choice in the diagnosis of(More)
Backward recall of automatic word sequences involves declarative and working memory abilities known to be impaired in the early stages of cognitive decline. Yet its utility in the diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment and mild dementia has not been studied in detail. We analysed word sequence production in 234 participants drawn from three categories:(More)