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Early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) can be cured by surgical resection, but a substantial fraction of patients ultimately dies due to distant metastasis. In this study, we used subtractive hybridization to identify gene expression differences in stage I NSCLC tumors that either did or did not metastasize in the course of disease. Individual(More)
MicroRNAs are important regulators of gene expression that control both physiological and pathological processes such as development and cancer. Although their mode of action has attracted great attention, the principles governing their expression and activity are only beginning to emerge. Recent studies have introduced a paradigm shift in our understanding(More)
BACKGROUND The use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to target the epidermal growth factor receptor gene (EGFR) in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer is effective but limited by the emergence of drug-resistance mutations. Molecular characterization of circulating tumor cells may provide a strategy for noninvasive serial monitoring of tumor genotypes(More)
The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), also known as MALAT-1 or NEAT2 (nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 2), is a highly conserved nuclear noncoding RNA (ncRNA) and a predictive marker for metastasis development in lung cancer. To uncover its functional importance, we developed a MALAT1 knockout model in(More)
With the advent of next generation sequencing methods and progress in transcriptome analysis, it became obvious that the human genome contains much more than just protein-coding genes. In fact, up to 70% of our genome is transcribed into RNA that does not serve as templates for proteins. In this review, we focus on the emerging roles of these long(More)
Distant metastasis is the predominant cause of death in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Currently, it is impossible to predict the occurrence of metastasis at early stages and thereby separate patients who could be cured by surgical resection alone from patients who would benefit from additional chemotherapy. In this study, we applied a(More)
The metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) is a bona fide long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). MALAT1, also known as nuclear-enriched transcript 2 (NEAT2), was discovered as a prognostic marker for lung cancer metastasis but also has been linked to several other human tumor entities. Recent work established a critical regulatory function of(More)
RNAi is widely applied to inhibit expression of specific genes, but it is limited by variable efficiency and specificity of empirically designed siRNA or shRNA constructs. This complicates studies targeting individual genes and significantly impairs large-scale screens using genome-wide knockdown libraries. Here, we show that ectopic expression of the RISC(More)
MicroRNAs are small endogenous noncoding RNAs involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation. During microRNA biogenesis, Drosha and Dicer process the primary transcript (pri-miRNA) through a precursor hairpin (pre-miRNA) to the mature miRNA. The miRNA is incorporated into the RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) with Argonaute proteins, the effector(More)
Development of distant metastasis is the major reason for cancer-related deaths worldwide. Adjuvant therapy approaches after local therapies are most effective when specific targets are inhibited. Recently, we identified S100P overexpression as a strong predictor for metastasis development in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Here, we(More)