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Early-life stress (ES) has been associated with diverse forms of psychopathology. Some investigators suggest that these associations reflect the effects of stress on the neural circuits that support cognitive control. However, very few prior studies have examined the associations between ES, cognitive control, and underlying neural architecture. The present(More)
Tourette's syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by the presence of chronic vocal and motor tics. Tics are sudden, highly stereotyped, movements that can be simple or complex in appearance. Since patients with TS have difficulties preventing unwanted movements, one might expect that their ability to voluntarily control goal-directed(More)
BACKGROUND Anxiety disorders are characterized by elevated, sustained responses to threat, that manifest as threat attention biases. Recent evidence also suggests exaggerated responses to incentives. How these characteristics influence cognitive control is under debate and is the focus of the present study. METHODS Twenty-five healthy adolescents and 25(More)
A key component of task preparation may be to anticipate the consequences of task-appropriate actions. This task switching study examined whether such type of "intentional" preparatory control relies on the presentation of explicit action effects. Preparatory BOLD activation in a condition with task-specific motion effect feedback was compared to identical(More)
INTRODUCTION Long-term effects and side effects of cross-sex hormone treatment in transsexual persons are not well known. AIM The aim of this study is to describe the effects and side effects of cross-sex hormone therapy in both transsexual men and women. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Hormone levels were measured by immunoassays. Physical health was assessed by(More)
Major questions remain about the exact role of hormones in cognition. Furthermore, the extent to which early perturbation in steroid function affects human brain development continues to be a wide open area of research. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), a genetic disorder of steroid dysfunction characterized in part by in utero over-production of(More)
Pediatric bipolar disorder is a severe and impairing illness. Characterizing the impact of pediatric bipolar disorder on cognitive function might aid in understanding the phenomenology of the disorder. While previous studies of pediatric bipolar disorder have reported deficits in cognitive control and reward behavior, little is understood about how(More)
A hallmark of human behaviour is its flexibility. In any given circumstance there is typically a range of possible responses that could be selected. In the current study participants were presented with stimulus displays that afforded two simple cognitive tasks and were required to switch predictably between them. The judgements for each task were either(More)
Increasing research documents an integration of cognitive control and affective processes. Despite a surge of interest in investigating the exact nature of this integration, no consensus has been reached on the precise neuroanatomical network involved. Using the activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis method, we examined 43 functional magnetic(More)
Virtual environments (VE) are being used increasingly in instruction and assessment in a variety of domains. They have been enthusiastically adopted in academic contexts (Youngblut), and many universities have created educational technology departments to research, develop, and incorporate VEs and other forms of computer-administered instruction and(More)