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NMDA receptor (NMDAR) 2A (NR2A)- and NR2B-type NMDARs coexist in synapses of CA1 pyramidal cells. Recent studies using pharmacological blockade of NMDAR subtypes proposed that the NR2A type is responsible for inducing long-term potentiation (LTP), whereas the NR2B type induces long-term depression (LTD). This contrasts with the finding in genetically(More)
Fragile X syndrome is one of the most common forms of mental retardation, yet little is known about the physiological mechanisms causing the disease. In this study, we probed the ionotropic glutamate receptor content in synapses of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in a mouse model for fragile X (Fmr1 KO2). We found that Fmr1 KO2 mice display a(More)
Activation of NMDA receptors (NMDARs) is a requirement for persistent synaptic alterations, such as long-term potentiation of synaptic transmission (LTP). NMDARs are composed of NR1 and NR2 subunits, and NR2 subunit-dependent gating properties of NMDAR subtypes cause dramatic differences in the timing of charge transfer. These postsynaptic temporal profiles(More)
Central nervous system synapses undergo activity-dependent alterations to support learning and memory. Long-term depression (LTD) reflects a sustained reduction of the synaptic AMPA receptor content based on targeted clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Here we report a current-independent form of AMPA receptor signaling, fundamental for LTD. We found that AMPA(More)
Persistent activity is thought to mediate working memory during behavior. Can it also occur during sleep? We found that the membrane potential of medial entorhinal cortex layer III (MECIII) neurons, a gateway between neocortex and hippocampus, showed spontaneous, stochastic persistent activity in vivo in mice during Up-Down state oscillations (UDS). This(More)
We have used a spin column assay to study the detergent-solubilized levamisole receptor, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The receptor can be successfully solubilized in detergent solutions of Triton X-100, Lubrol PX, or sodium cholate. Centrifugal gel filtration assay using the tritiated ligand(More)
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