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Genetic variation in coding regions is of strong interest for biologists as it represents an important factor that drives evolution. To analyse polymorphic loci, researchers usually rely on commonly used typing techniques such as cloning, SSCP, DGGE or RSCA. However, there are potential pitfalls in screening multi-allelic templates, which are mainly the(More)
The role of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood of primary breast cancer patients is still under investigation. We evaluated the incidence of CTCs in blood, we evaluated the correlation between CTCs and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow (BM), and we characterized CTCs for the expression of HER2, the estrogen receptor (ER) and the(More)
Small, coccoid and rod-shaped Synechococcus-type cyanobacteria with either phycoerythrin or phycocyanin as major accessory pigments were isolated from several large, temperate-zone lakes and the brackish Baltic Sea. The picocyanobacteria had two ribosomal operons with a long internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) separating the 16S rDNA and 23S rDNA. A 16S(More)
Succession of ecotypes, physiologically diverse strains with negligible rRNA sequence divergence, may explain the dominance of small, red-pigmented (phycoerythrin-rich) cyanobacteria in the autotrophic picoplankton of deep lakes (C. Postius and A. Ernst, Arch. Microbiol. 172:69-75, 1999). In order to test this hypothesis, it is necessary to determine the(More)
The colonial cyanobacterium Microcystis proliferates in a wide range of freshwater ecosystems and is exposed to changing environmental factors during its life cycle. Microcystis blooms are often toxic, potentially fatal to animals and humans, and may cause environmental problems. There has been little investigation of the genomics of these cyanobacteria.(More)
We have developed a real-time PCR assay for detection of Trypanosoma brucei DNA in human blood samples. The PCR was conducted with newly designed primers targeting the 177-bp repeat satellite DNA in T. brucei and with Sybr Green to monitor the amplicon accumulation. DNA purification using Chelex 100 resin was performed on blood samples collected on Whatman(More)
During the last years the quantification of immune response under immunological challenges, e.g. parasitation, has been a major focus of research. In this context, the expression of immune response genes in teleost fish has been surveyed for scientific and commercial purposes. Despite the fact that it was shown in teleostei and other taxa that the gene for(More)
Exposure to drugs that interfere with microtubule dynamics block cell cycle progression at mitosis by prolonged activation of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Cells can evade mitotic arrest and proceed to interphase without chromosome segregation by a process termed mitotic slippage that involves Cyclin B1 degradation without checkpoint inactivation.(More)
The persistence of disseminated tumor cells (DTC) in bone marrow (BM) of breast cancer patients is associated with poor prognosis. Preliminary studies indicated that these patients might benefit from secondary adjuvant targeted therapy. HER2 protein is suggested as one of the most promising targets. The aims of this study were (1) to determine the HER2(More)
Isolated disseminated tumour cells (DTC) are regarded as surrogate markers for minimal residual disease in breast cancer. Characterisation of these cells could help understand the known limitations of adjuvant therapy. Of particular interest is their oestrogen-receptor (ER) status because endocrine adjuvant therapy remains a cornerstone of breast cancer(More)