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BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency syndrome type 1 (HIV-1) infection is essential to sustain viral suppression and prevent drug resistance. We investigated adherence to HAART among patients in a clinical cohort study. METHODS Patients receiving HAART had their plasma concentrations of protease(More)
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN The dynamics uf viral decline following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment were studied in 29 HIV-1-infected patients participating in a two-arm trial comparing immediate (group A: ritonavir, zidovudine and lamivudine) and delayed (group B: ritonavir supplemented by zidovudine and lamivudine on day 21) triple therapy.(More)
The effect of the appearance of drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) on viral RNA load was studied in patients treated with the reverse transcriptase inhibitor lamivudine. During the first 12 weeks of treatment, HIV-1 RNA concentrations and amino acid changes in codon 184, causing high-level resistance to lamivudine, were determined in(More)
In lymphoid tissue, where human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is produced and stored, three-drug treatment with viral protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors markedly reduced viral burden. This was shown by in situ hybridization and computerized quantitative analysis of serial tonsil biopsies from previously untreated adults. The frequency of(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the contribution of zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) in particular. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial comparing lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) + ZDV/3TC with LPV/r + nevirapine (NVP) in 50 cART-naive men. METHODS Dual(More)
OBJECTIVE To identify genotypic drug resistance patterns of HIV-1 in patients who were extensively pretreated with anti-HIV drugs and not responding to their current antiretroviral combination therapy. METHODS Drug susceptibility of the viruses was tested by a phenotypic recombinant virus assay. Genotypic analysis of HIV resistance was performed by(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the incidence of the AIDS dementia complex and the presence of HIV I p24 antigen in cerebrospinal fluid in relation to zidovudine treatment. DESIGN Retrospective study of a consecutive series of patients with AIDS from 1982 to 1988. SETTING An academic centre for AIDS. PATIENTS 196 Patients with AIDS and neurological symptoms(More)
Only limited data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA responses and markers of local inflammation in CSF during antiretroviral therapy are available. HIV-RNA, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (sTNFr)-II, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP)-10 were measured in the peripheral blood and CSF of 26(More)
OBJECTIVES HIV-infected patients using combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) have an increased cardiovascular risk. We aimed to identify the effects of HIV, ART, and lipodystrophy (LD) on carotid artery intima-media thickness (C-IMT), a surrogate measure of atherosclerosis, and arterial stiffness, a marker of cardiovascular risk. DESIGN Case-control(More)
Antibodies to E. coli-produced HIV-1 vpr and vpu were determined by enzyme immunoassay in serial sets of sera from 72 men seroconverting for antibodies to HIV-1 structural proteins, and from 196 initially symptom-free men who were positive for such antibodies at study entry. First detection of vpr- and vpu-specific antibodies always was within 12 months of(More)