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BACKGROUND Falls occur frequently in older people and strongly affect quality of life. Guidelines recommend multifactorial, targeted fall prevention. We evaluated the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention in older persons with a high risk of recurrent falls. METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted from April 3, 2005, to July 21, 2008,(More)
OBJECTIVE To compare the impact on quality of life (QoL) of treatment with ritonavir (RTV)/saquinavir (SQV) versus RTV/SQV/stavudine (d4T) in asymptomatic [Centers for Disease Control (CDC) class A] and symptomatic HIV-infected patients (CDC B and C) who did or did not receive antiretroviral therapy (ARVT) before entry into the study. DESIGN A multicenter(More)
BACKGROUND Ritonavir is a potent, orally bioavailable inhibitor of HIV-1 protease. We undertook an international, multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of ritonavir in patients with HIV-1 infection and CD4-lymphocyte counts of 100 cells/microL or less, who had previously been treated with antiretroviral drugs. METHODS 1090(More)
In lymphoid tissue, where human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is produced and stored, three-drug treatment with viral protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors markedly reduced viral burden. This was shown by in situ hybridization and computerized quantitative analysis of serial tonsil biopsies from previously untreated adults. The frequency of(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency syndrome type 1 (HIV-1) infection is essential to sustain viral suppression and prevent drug resistance. We investigated adherence to HAART among patients in a clinical cohort study. METHODS Patients receiving HAART had their plasma concentrations of protease(More)
Only limited data on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) HIV-1 RNA responses and markers of local inflammation in CSF during antiretroviral therapy are available. HIV-RNA, soluble tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-receptor (sTNFr)-II, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and interferon-gamma-inducible protein (IP)-10 were measured in the peripheral blood and CSF of 26(More)
Antigen-induced stimulation of the immune system can generate heterogeneity in CD4+ T cell division rates capable of explaining the temporal patterns seen in the decay of HIV-1 plasma RNA levels during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Posttreatment increases in peripheral CD4+ T cell counts are consistent with a mathematical model in which host cell(More)
OBJECTIVES AND DESIGN The dynamics uf viral decline following the initiation of antiretroviral treatment were studied in 29 HIV-1-infected patients participating in a two-arm trial comparing immediate (group A: ritonavir, zidovudine and lamivudine) and delayed (group B: ritonavir supplemented by zidovudine and lamivudine on day 21) triple therapy.(More)
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in(More)
The origin of CD4+ T cells reappearing in the blood following antiretroviral therapy in human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) infection is still controversial. Here we show, using mathematical modeling, that redistribution of T cells to the blood can explain the striking correlation between the initial CD4+ and CD8+ memory T-cell repopulation and the(More)