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In lymphoid tissue, where human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) is produced and stored, three-drug treatment with viral protease and reverse transcriptase inhibitors markedly reduced viral burden. This was shown by in situ hybridization and computerized quantitative analysis of serial tonsil biopsies from previously untreated adults. The frequency of(More)
BACKGROUND Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency syndrome type 1 (HIV-1) infection is essential to sustain viral suppression and prevent drug resistance. We investigated adherence to HAART among patients in a clinical cohort study. METHODS Patients receiving HAART had their plasma concentrations of protease(More)
BACKGROUND An HIV-specific version of the QUOTE questionnaire was developed to measure the quality of care of patients infected with HIV from the patients' perspective. The consistency and validity of the questionnaire was assessed. METHODS Focus group discussions were held to select aspects for inclusion in the questionnaire that are important to(More)
BACKGROUND Falls occur frequently in older people and strongly affect quality of life. Guidelines recommend multifactorial, targeted fall prevention. We evaluated the effectiveness of a multifactorial intervention in older persons with a high risk of recurrent falls. METHODS A randomized controlled trial was conducted from April 3, 2005, to July 21, 2008,(More)
In sexual transmission of simian immunodeficiency virus, and early and later stages of human immunodeficiency virus-type 1 (HIV-1) infection, both viruses were found to replicate predominantly in CD4(+) T cells at the portal of entry and in lymphoid tissues. Infection was propagated not only in activated and proliferating T cells but also, surprisingly, in(More)
To investigate the effect of persistent HIV infection on the immune system, we studied leukocyte functions in 14 asymptomatic homosexual men (CDC group II/III) who were at least two years seropositive, but who still had normal numbers of circulating CD4+ T cells. Compared with age-matched heterosexual men and HIV-negative homosexual men, the CD4+ and CD8+ T(More)
OBJECTIVES A possible mechanism for HIV therapy failure is the efflux of HIV drugs from viral target cells or certain body compartments by ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, allowing ongoing viral replication. Here, we investigated the interaction between protease inhibitors (PIs) and ABC transporters. METHODS To explore the potential blocking(More)
The effectiveness and antiretroviral activities of interferon-alpha in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomised, phase-II clinical trial. 28 patients were treated with high-dose (27-36 MU) human recombinant interferon-alpha 2a subcutaneously every day for 8 weeks. In patients with stable disease or showing a response, treatment was(More)
Exposure of human immunodeficiency virus to the nucleoside analogue lamivudine (3TC) rapidly selects for resistant variants with a valine at codon 184 (M184V) in the catalytic site of reverse transcriptase. In vitro, 184V demonstrated increased enzyme fidelity and suppressed zidovudine resistance. Clinical trials demonstrated that 3TC-zidovudine combination(More)
Lymphoproliferative responses (LPRs) to recall antigens (Ags) and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) Gag and frequencies of circulating HIV-1-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte precursors (CTLps) were measured in 12 patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) after long-standing HIV-1 infection. LPRs to at least 1 recall Ag became(More)