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T he ability to probe the base of a wound to periosteum or bone (the " probe-to-bone " test) is increasingly used to indicate the likelihood of underlying osteomyelitis. The original study (1) reported sensitivity, specificity, and positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of 66, 85, 89, and 56%, respectively. However, this work has been(More)
Electron transfer from valence to conduction band states in semiconductors is the basis of modern electronics. Here, attosecond extreme ultraviolet (XUV) spectroscopy is used to resolve this process in silicon in real time. Electrons injected into the conduction band by few-cycle laser pulses alter the silicon XUV absorption spectrum in sharp steps(More)
Short, intense laser pulses can be used to access the transition regime between classical and quantum optical responses in dielectrics. In this regime, the relative roles of inter- and intraband light-driven electronic transitions remain uncertain. We applied attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to investigate the interaction between polycrystalline(More)
Electric-field-induced charge separation (polarization) is the most fundamental manifestation of the interaction of light with matter and a phenomenon of great technological relevance. Nonlinear optical polarization produces coherent radiation in spectral ranges inaccessible by lasers and constitutes the key to ultimate-speed signal manipulation. Terahertz(More)
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