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The cellular heterogeneity of brain poses a particularly thorny issue in genome-wide gene expression studies. Because laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables the precise extraction of a small area of tissue, we combined LCM with neuronal track tracing to collect nucleus accumbens shell neurons that project to ventral pallidum, which are of particular(More)
Rodents consume water by performing stereotypic, rhythmic licking movements that are believed to be controlled by brainstem pattern-generating circuits. Previous work has shown that synchronized population activity of inferior olive neurons was phase-locked to the licking rhythm in rats, suggesting a cerebellar involvement in temporal aspects of licking(More)
A GAG deletion in the gene (TOR1A) for torsinA is associated with childhood-onset generalized dystonia (DYT1). Environmental factors may contribute to development of the phenotype since mutations in TOR1A are clinically penetrant in less than 40% of cases. Median age of onset is 10 and appearance of dystonia after 28 is rare. As a step towards understanding(More)
Cerebral cortical neural networks associated with eyelid movement play a critical role in facial animation, contribute to the regulation of blink frequency, and help prevent ocular injury. Eyelid closure depends, in part, on motoneurons that innervate the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscles. In this study, OO motoneuron cortical afferents were identified in(More)
The choroidal blood vessels of the eye provide the main vascular support to the outer retina. These blood vessels are under parasympathetic vasodilatory control via input from the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG), which in turn receives its preganglionic input from the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) of the hindbrain. The present study characterized the(More)
PURPOSE The pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) receives preganglionic input from the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) of the facial motor complex and is the main source of parasympathetic input to the choroid in mammals. The present study was undertaken to determine in rats the location and neurotransmitters of SSN neurons innervating those PPG neurons that(More)
Protection of the eye and maintenance of the precorneal tear film depend on sensory innervation of the cornea and eyelids and motor innervation of muscles involved in closing and opening the eyes. Using a variety of fluorescent and transganglionic tracers, the sensorimotor innervation of blink-related orbital and periorbital structures was studied in(More)
Compelling evidence suggests that inhibition of the complex I of the electron transport chain and elevated oxidative stress are the earliest events during the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). Therefore, anti-oxidants, especially those from natural sources, hold good promise in treating PD as demonstrated mostly by the studies in rodent models.(More)
Traditional histochemical detection of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP) can impose substantial technical limitations on studies requiring co-localization of neurotransmitters, receptors and other neural antigens. The goal of our experiments was to establish the ideal conditions and reagents for immunohistochemical detection of WGA-HRP.(More)
Classical genetic studies show the heritability of cigarette smoking is 0.4-0.6, and that multiple genes confer susceptibility and resistance to smoking. Despite recent advances in identifying genes associated with smoking behaviors, the major source of this heritability and its impact on susceptibility and resistance are largely unknown. Operant(More)