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Rodents consume water by performing stereotypic, rhythmic licking movements that are believed to be controlled by brainstem pattern-generating circuits. Previous work has shown that synchronized population activity of inferior olive neurons was phase-locked to the licking rhythm in rats, suggesting a cerebellar involvement in temporal aspects of licking(More)
The choroidal blood vessels of the eye provide the main vascular support to the outer retina. These blood vessels are under parasympathetic vasodilatory control via input from the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG), which in turn receives its preganglionic input from the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) of the hindbrain. The present study characterized the(More)
Protection of the eye and maintenance of the precorneal tear film depend on sensory innervation of the cornea and eyelids and motor innervation of muscles involved in closing and opening the eyes. Using a variety of fluorescent and transganglionic tracers, the sensorimotor innervation of blink-related orbital and periorbital structures was studied in(More)
A GAG deletion in the gene (TOR1A) for torsinA is associated with childhood-onset generalized dystonia (DYT1). Environmental factors may contribute to development of the phenotype since mutations in TOR1A are clinically penetrant in less than 40% of cases. Median age of onset is 10 and appearance of dystonia after 28 is rare. As a step towards understanding(More)
Cerebral cortical neural networks associated with eyelid movement play a critical role in facial animation, contribute to the regulation of blink frequency, and help prevent ocular injury. Eyelid closure depends, in part, on motoneurons that innervate the orbicularis oculi (OO) muscles. In this study, OO motoneuron cortical afferents were identified in(More)
The cellular heterogeneity of brain poses a particularly thorny issue in genome-wide gene expression studies. Because laser capture microdissection (LCM) enables the precise extraction of a small area of tissue, we combined LCM with neuronal track tracing to collect nucleus accumbens shell neurons that project to ventral pallidum, which are of particular(More)
PURPOSE The pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG) receives preganglionic input from the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) of the facial motor complex and is the main source of parasympathetic input to the choroid in mammals. The present study was undertaken to determine in rats the location and neurotransmitters of SSN neurons innervating those PPG neurons that(More)
BACKGROUND Although the c.904_906delGAG mutation in Exon 5 of TOR1A typically manifests as early-onset generalized dystonia, DYT1 dystonia is genetically and clinically heterogeneous. Recently, another Exon 5 mutation (c.863G>A) has been associated with early-onset generalized dystonia and some DeltaGAG mutation carriers present with late-onset focal(More)
Using intrachoroidal injection of the transneuronal retrograde tracer pseudorabies virus (PRV) in rats, we previously localized preganglionic neurons in the superior salivatory nucleus (SSN) that regulate choroidal blood flow (ChBF) via projections to the pterygopalatine ganglion (PPG). In the present study, we used higher-order transneuronal retrograde(More)
Inbred Lewis and Fisher 344 rat strains differ greatly in drug self-administration; Lewis rats operantly self-administer drugs of abuse including nicotine, whereas Fisher self-administer poorly. As shown herein, operant food self-administration is similar. On the basis of their pivotal role in drug reward, we hypothesized that differences in basal gene(More)