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Here, we review the recently burgeoning literature on color polymorphisms, seeking to integrate studies of the maintenance of genetic variation and the evolution of reproductive isolation. Our survey reveals that several mechanisms, some operating between populations and others within them, can contribute to both color polymorphism persistence and(More)
We identify two processes by which humans increase genetic exchange among groups of individuals: by affecting the distribution of groups and dispersal patterns across a landscape, and by affecting interbreeding among sympatric or parapatric groups. Each of these processes might then have two different effects on biodiversity: changes in the number of taxa(More)
The telmatherinid fishes of the Malili Lakes, Sulawesi, Indonesia provide a new and promising system for studying the processes maintaining diversity in nature, and especially for testing the generality of the influential findings emerging from studies of other fish systems. Here we develop the telmatherinid system by providing the first detailed(More)
Female preference for male orange coloration in the genus Poecilia suggests a role for duplicated long wavelength-sensitive (LWS) opsin genes in facilitating behaviors related to mate choice in these species. Previous work has shown that LWS gene duplication in this genus has resulted in expansion of long wavelength visual capacity as determined by(More)
Explicit evaluation of the accuracy and power of maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods for detecting site-specific positive Darwinian selection presents a challenge because selective consequences of single amino acid changes are generally unknown. We exploited extensive molecular and functional characterization of amino acid substitutions in the plant(More)
Sexual selection could be a driving force in the maintenance of intraspecific variation, but supporting observations from nature are limited. Here, we test the hypothesis that spatial heterogeneity of the visual environment can influence sexual selection on colourful male secondary traits such that selective advantage is environment contingent. Using a(More)
Perceived certainty of paternity is expected to influence a male's behavior toward his offspring: if he is uncertain of his reproductive success with a current brood due to the presence of cuckolders, it may benefit him to invest instead in future reproduction. A decrease in perceived certainty of paternity incites filial cannibalism (the eating of one's(More)
Fish populations are increasingly being subjected to anthropogenic changes to their sensory environments. The impact of these changes on inter- and intra-specific communication, and its evolutionary consequences, has only recently started to receive research attention. A disruption of the sensory environment is likely to impact communication, especially(More)
External body colour is an important trait contributing to phenotypic diversity and individual fitness in fish species. In this study, we use a combination of experimental techniques and field observations to examine patterns of colour divergence in the introduced Nile perch population of Lake Nabugabo, Uganda. We aim to determine whether the proportion of(More)
Persistent colour polymorphisms can result from natural and/or sexual selection, and may occur in males, females, or both sexes. Contrary to conspicuous patterns frequently observed in courtship colouration, differences in cryptic colouration are not always perceived by the human sensory system. In sexually dimorphic sailfin silversides fishes, males show(More)