Suzanne M Graham

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High-fat-diet (HFD)-induced obesity is a major contributor to diabetes and cardiovascular disease, but the underlying genetic mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we use Drosophila to test the hypothesis that HFD-induced obesity and associated cardiac complications have early evolutionary origins involving nutrient-sensing signal transduction pathways.(More)
We have introduced a variety of amino acid substitutions into carboxyl-terminal CA1A2X sequence (C = cysteine; A = aliphatic; X = any amino acid) of the oncogenic [Val12]Ki-Ras4B protein to identify the amino acids that permit Ras processing (isoprenylation, proteolysis, and carboxyl methylation), membrane association, and transformation in cultured(More)
Members of the Ras superfamily of proteins function as regulated GDP/GTP switches that cycle between active GTP-complexed and inactive GDP-complexed states. Guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) stimulate formation of the GTP-bound state, whereas GTPase activating proteins (GAPs) catalyze the formation of the GDP-bound state. We describe three studies(More)
Reducing insulin/IGF signaling allows for organismal survival during periods of inhospitable conditions by regulating the diapause state, whereby the organism stockpiles lipids, reduces fertility, increases stress resistance, and has an increased lifespan. The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) responds to changes in growth factors, amino acids, oxygen tension, and(More)
Although the human Ras proteins are members of a large superfamily of Ras-related proteins, to date, only the proteins encoded by the three mammalian ras genes have been found to possess oncogenic potential. Among the known Ras-related proteins, TC21/R-Ras2 exhibits the most significant amino acid identity (55%) to Ras proteins. We have generated mutant(More)
Oncogenic Ras and activated forms of the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 share similar abilities to alter cell proliferation. However, in contrast to Ras, we found previously that TC21 fails to activate the Raf-1 serine/threonine kinase. Thus, TC21 must utilize non-Raf effectors to regulate cell function. In this study, we determined that TC21 interacts(More)
Although the Ras-related protein TC21/R-Ras2 has only 55% amino acid identity with Ras proteins, mutated forms of TC21 exhibit the same potent transforming activity as constitutively activated forms of Ras. Therefore, like Ras, TC21 may activate signaling pathways that control normal cell growth and differentiation. To address this possibility, we(More)
The rodent fibroblast systems described above have provided sensitive and rapid biological assays to characterize the properties of normal and mutated Ras proteins. Furthermore, these assays have provided in vitro systems to measure the ability of other cellular components to modulate Ras signal transduction and transformation. However, while these assays(More)
Guanine nucleotide-dependent modulation of agonist binding to the beta-receptor reflects coupling of the receptor to the nucleotide regulatory protein. Similarly, guanine nucleotide-dependent stimulation of adenylate cyclase can be used as an index of coupling between the regulatory protein and the catalytic unit of the cyclase. Using both approaches we(More)
The effect of age on catecholamine regulation of hepatic glycogenolysis and on hepatic adenylate cyclase was studied in male rats up to 24 mo of age. Epinephrine and norepinephrine stimulated glycogenolysis in isolated hepatocytes at all age groups studied. Isoproterenol, however, stimulated glycogenolysis only at 24 mo. In isolated liver membranes, usual(More)