Suzanne M. DeFord

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Experimental investigations of single mild brain injury (SMI) show relatively little resultant cognitive impairment. However, repeated mild brain injuries (RMI), as those sustained by athletes (e.g., football, hockey, and soccer players) may have cumulative effects on cognitive performance and neuropathology. Numerous clinical studies show persistent,(More)
Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity has been shown to contribute to cellular dysfunction following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Increasing inhibitory function through stimulation of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA(A)) receptors may attenuate excitotoxic effects and improve outcome. The present experiment examined the effects of diazepam, a positive modulator(More)
Increases in intracellular calcium and subsequent activation of calcium-activated proteases (e.g., calpains) may play a critical role in central nervous system injury. Several studies have implicated calpain activation following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). This study evaluated the effect of a calpain inhibitor administration following SAH in the rat on(More)
Tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG, EC has been implicated in various disease paradigms including neurodegenerative disease. In these studies, tTG induction after traumatic brain injury was studied using a rat cortical impact model. Using western blots, two forms of tTG protein expression were identified--an approximately 79-kDa primary form(More)
The contributions of calpain and caspase-3 to apoptosis and necrosis after central nervous system (CNS) trauma are relatively unexplored. No study has examined concurrent activation of calpain and caspase-3 in necrotic or apoptotic cell death after any CNS insult. Experiments used a model of oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) in primary septo-hippocampal(More)
Nefiracetam, a pyrrolidone derivative, is a nootropic agent that has facilitated cognitive function in a wide variety of animal models of cognitive dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the chronic postinjury administration of nefiracetam (DM-9384) in improving cognitive performance following central fluid percussion(More)
Primary septo-hippocampal cell cultures were incubated in varying concentrations of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha; 0.3-500 ng/ml) to examine proteolysis of the cytoskeletal protein alpha-spectrin (240 kDa) to a signature 145 kDa fragment by calpain and to the apoptotic-linked 120-kDa fragment by caspase-3. The effects of TNF-alpha incubation on(More)
The present study tested the hypothesis that lesions of the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) would reduce the cardiovascular responses to acute stress in a rodent model that is genetically predisposed toward hypertension. Male borderline hypertensive rats (BHR) were given bilateral electrolytic lesions directed to destroy the CeA or were subjected to a(More)
Much is still unknown about the long-term effects of repeated, sub-lethal exposure to organophosphorus (OP) nerve agents, such as soman (GD), on learning and memory tasks and related protein expression in the hippocampus. In the present study, guinea pigs were exposed to sub-lethal doses of GD for 10 days and cognitive performance assessed using the Morris(More)
The objective of this study was to determine levels of DNA fragmentation in blood leukocytes and parietal cortex from guinea pigs following repeated lowlevel exposure to the chemical warfare nerve agent (CWNA) sarin. Guinea pigs were injected (s.c.) once a day for 10 days with saline, or 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 LD50 (50% mean lethal dose) sarin dissolved in(More)