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OBJECTIVE Antibiotic prophylaxis is used to minimize infectious complications resulting from interventions. Side-effects and development of microbial resistance patterns are risks of the use of antibiotics. Therefore, the use should be well considered and based on high levels of evidence. In this review, all available evidence on the use of antibiotic(More)
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have a higher prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and incidence of urinary tract infections (UTIs) compared with patients without DM. They also more often have bacteraemia, with the urinary tract as the most common focus for these infections, as well as a higher mortality outside the hospital compared with(More)
BACKGROUND The increasing prevalence of uropathogens resistant to antimicrobial agents has stimulated interest in cranberries to prevent recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). METHODS In a double-blind, double-dummy noninferiority trial, 221 premenopausal women with recurrent UTIs were randomized to 12-month prophylaxis use of(More)
OBJECTIVE We studied changes in bone mineral density (BMD) and bone turnover after initiation of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and the contribution of zidovudine/lamivudine (ZDV/3TC) in particular. DESIGN Randomized clinical trial comparing lopinavir/ritonavir(LPV/r) + ZDV/3TC with LPV/r + nevirapine (NVP) in 50 cART-naive men. METHODS Dual(More)
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurs in a subpopulation of HIV-infected patients after the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). The purpose of this review is to describe the immunopathogenesis, risk factors, diagnostic problems, treatment and prevention of IRIS. A literature search was performed and finally 15 recent articles(More)
Guidelines for the diagnosis, prevention, and management of persons with catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI), both symptomatic and asymptomatic, were prepared by an Expert Panel of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. The evidence-based guidelines encompass diagnostic criteria, strategies to reduce the risk of CA-UTIs, strategies(More)
Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) have infections more often than those without DM. The course of the infections is also more complicated in this patient group. One of the possible causes of this increased prevalence of infections is defects in immunity. Besides some decreased cellular responses in vitro, no disturbances in adaptive immunity in diabetic(More)
BACKGROUND Growing antibiotic resistance warrants studying nonantibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs). Use of lactobacilli appears to be promising. METHODS Between January 2005 and August 2007, we randomized 252 postmenopausal women with recurrent UTIs taking part in a double-blind noninferiority trial to receive 12 months of(More)
OBJECTIVE Women with diabetes have bacteriuria more often than women without diabetes. Because Escherichia coli adhere better to vaginal cells of nondiabetic patients with recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) than to those obtained from healthy control subjects, it was hypothesized that E. coli adhere more to the uroepithelial cells of diabetic women,(More)
Patient enrolment in the 'Non-antibiotic versus antibiotic prophylaxis for recurrent urinary-tract infections' (NAPRUTI) study was started in September 2005. In this study of women with recurrent urinary-tract infections we aim to investigate the effect of 12 months of non-antibiotic prophylaxis in comparison with antibiotic prophylaxis on the rate of(More)