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We used magnetic resonance imaging and cortical matching algorithms to map gray matter density (GMD) in 176 normal individuals ranging in age from 7 to 87 years. We found a significant, nonlinear decline in GMD with age, which was most rapid between 7 and about 60 years, over dorsal frontal and parietal association cortices on both the lateral and(More)
Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology now allow the tracing of developmental changes in the brains of children. We applied computer-matching algorithms and new techniques for measuring cortical thickness (in millimeters) to the structural MRI images of 45 children scanned twice (2 yr apart) between the ages 5 and 11. Changes in(More)
Here we report on detailed three-dimensional quantitative maps of brain surface and gray matter density asymmetry patterns during normal adolescent development and show how these anatomical features of the brain are disrupted as a result of prenatal exposure to large quantities of alcohol. We studied two independent samples of normally developing children,(More)
BACKGROUND Results of structural brain imaging studies of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have shown subtle reductions in total brain volume and in volumes of the right frontal lobe and caudate nucleus. Although various conventional volumetric and voxel-based methods of image analysis have been used in these studies, regional brain(More)
BACKGROUND In elderly depression, volumetric brain imaging findings suggest abnormalities of the frontal lobe, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. No studies to date have mapped cortical abnormalities over the entire brain surface in major depression. Here, we conducted detailed spatial analyses of brain size and gray matter within(More)
Interaction between the cerebral hemispheres may allow both hemispheres to contribute their processing resources in order to cope efficiently with complex tasks [Banich, M. (1998). The missing link: the role of interhemispheric interaction in attentional processing. Brain and Cognition, 36, 128-157]. The current study investigated whether the benefits of(More)
We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior frontal and(More)
We compared cortical anatomy, using 3D brain MRI scans, between three groups of university students: proficient readers (skilled at phonological decoding and text comprehension), poor readers (impaired at phonological decoding and text comprehension), and resilient readers (impaired at phonological decoding but skilled in text comprehension). This latter(More)
Is it advantageous to be strongly lateralized? The current study investigated this question by examining the relationship between visual field asymmetries for lexical tasks and reading performance in a sample of 200 young adults. Larger visual field asymmetries were associated with better reading performance, but this relationship was obtained primarily in(More)
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to investigate relationships between white matter anatomy and different reading subskills in typical-reading adults. A series of analytic approaches revealed that phonological decoding ability is associated with anatomical markers that do not relate to other reading-related cognitive abilities. Thus, individual(More)