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We used magnetic resonance imaging and cortical matching algorithms to map gray matter density (GMD) in 176 normal individuals ranging in age from 7 to 87 years. We found a significant, nonlinear decline in GMD with age, which was most rapid between 7 and about 60 years, over dorsal frontal and parietal association cortices on both the lateral and(More)
Recent advances in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technology now allow the tracing of developmental changes in the brains of children. We applied computer-matching algorithms and new techniques for measuring cortical thickness (in millimeters) to the structural MRI images of 45 children scanned twice (2 yr apart) between the ages 5 and 11. Changes in(More)
Here we report on detailed three-dimensional quantitative maps of brain surface and gray matter density asymmetry patterns during normal adolescent development and show how these anatomical features of the brain are disrupted as a result of prenatal exposure to large quantities of alcohol. We studied two independent samples of normally developing children,(More)
Biological and behavioral differences between the sexes range from obvious to subtle or nonexistent. Neuroanatomical differences are particularly controversial, perhaps due to the implication that they might account for behavioral differences. In this sample of 200 men and women, large effect sizes (Cohen's d > 0.8) were found for sex differences in total(More)
BACKGROUND Results of structural brain imaging studies of patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have shown subtle reductions in total brain volume and in volumes of the right frontal lobe and caudate nucleus. Although various conventional volumetric and voxel-based methods of image analysis have been used in these studies, regional brain(More)
We used fMRI to examine patterns of brain activity associated with component processes of visual word recognition and their relationships to individual differences in reading skill. We manipulated both the judgments adults made on written stimuli and the characteristics of the stimuli. Phonological processing led to activation in left inferior frontal and(More)
BACKGROUND In elderly depression, volumetric brain imaging findings suggest abnormalities of the frontal lobe, particularly the orbitofrontal cortex, and the hippocampus. No studies to date have mapped cortical abnormalities over the entire brain surface in major depression. Here, we conducted detailed spatial analyses of brain size and gray matter within(More)
Interaction between the cerebral hemispheres may allow both hemispheres to contribute their processing resources in order to cope efficiently with complex tasks [Banich, M. (1998). The missing link: the role of interhemispheric interaction in attentional processing. Brain and Cognition, 36, 128-157]. The current study investigated whether the benefits of(More)
The authors report findings of a large-scale, multitask investigation of sex differences in both structural asymmetries and lateralization of word reading. Two hundred participants were tested in eight divided visual field lexical tasks, and each received a structural magnetic resonance imaging scan. The authors examined whether there was evidence for sex(More)
Many structural brain asymmetries accompany left hemisphere language dominance. For example, the cingulate sulcus is larger in the medial cortex of the right hemisphere, while the more dorsal paracingulate sulcus is larger on the left. The functional significance of these asymmetries is unknown because fMRI studies rarely attempt to localize activation to(More)