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During mammalian cerebral corticogenesis, progenitor cells become progressively restricted in the types of neurons they can produce. The molecular mechanism that determines earlier versus later born neuron fate is unknown. We demonstrate here that the generation of the earliest born neurons, the Cajal-Retzius cells, is suppressed by the telencephalic(More)
Thymocyte winged helix (TWH) is a putative transcription factor expressed in the developing neural tube. At midgestation, TWH expression identifies subsets of spinal cord motor neurons and interneurons. TWH-expressing motor neurons were restricted to specific spinal cord levels, distinguishing motor neurons at lumbar from those at cervical levels. To(More)
The winged helix gene Brain factor-1 (BF1) has a pleiotropic role in the development of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Mice lacking BF1 have defects in the morphogenesis of the structures of the dorsal telencephalon (e.g., neocortex) and the ventral telencephalon (e.g., the basal ganglia). This study focuses on the functions of BF1 in the dorsal(More)
In animals with binocular vision, retinal ganglion cell (RGC) axons from each eye sort in the developing ventral diencephalon to project to ipsi- or contralateral targets, thereby forming the optic chiasm. Ipsilaterally projecting axons arise from the ventrotemporal (VT) retina and contralaterally projecting axons primarily from the other retinal quadrants.(More)
BACKGROUND Our earlier work in the ultrasonograpy of localized scleroderma (LS) suggests that altered levels of echogenicity and vascularity can be associated with disease activity. Utrasound is clinically benign and readily available, but can be limited by operator dependence. We present our efforts to standardize image acquisition and interpretation of(More)
Purpose Localized scleroderma (LS) is a chronic inflammatory and fibrosing skin disease, more common in children. We present baseline data on the juvenile LS (jLS) cohort from the CARRAnet observational registry of pediatric rheumatologic disorders. Methods We performed a cross-sectional baseline analysis of registry data for jLS. Results Data were(More)
Malaria remains one of the most devastating parasitic diseases worldwide, with 90% of the malaria deaths in Africa in 2013 attributable to Plasmodium falciparum. The clinical symptoms of malaria include cycles of fever, corresponding to parasite rupture from red blood cells every 48 h. Parasite pathways involved in the parasite's ability to survive the host(More)
Purpose Intra-articular corticosteroid injection (IACI) with triamcinolone hexacetonide (TH) is a mainstay of therapy for patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Our aim was to determine factors that affected the durability of response to IACI with TH in patients with JIA. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted of all JIA patients who(More)
BACKGROUND Intra-articular corticosteroid injections (IACI) are routinely used by pediatric rheumatologists in the treatment of chronic arthritis. Frequently, topical anesthetics are used to control procedural pain, but their relative efficacy has not been reported. In this study, we evaluated the level of pain associated with different anesthetic methods,(More)
Purpose Although ultrasound shows great potential for aiding assessment of LS disease activity, its use has been limited because both image acquisition and interpretation are operator dependent. To facilitate evaluating and to standardize interpretation of jLS ultrasound scans, we generated a scoring measure for evaluating echogenicity and vascularity(More)