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Complement is one of the first host defense barriers against bacteria. Activated complement attracts neutrophils to the site of infection and opsonizes bacteria to facilitate phagocytosis. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has successfully developed ways to evade the complement system, for example by secretion of specific complement inhibitors.(More)
The CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) on neutrophils, which recognizes chemokines produced at the site of infection, plays an important role in antimicrobial host defenses such as neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen secreting a number of proteolytic enzymes, but their influence on the host immune system(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in humans. All GAS serotypes express the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC), comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with an immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chain, which is the basis of rapid diagnostic tests. No biological function has been attributed to this(More)
To combat the human immune response, bacteria should be able to divert the effectiveness of the complement system. We identify four potent complement inhibitors in Staphylococcus aureus that are part of a new immune evasion cluster. Two are homologues of the C3 convertase modulator staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) and function in a similar way as(More)
Activation of the complement system generates potent chemoattractants and opsonizes cells for immune clearance. Short-lived protease complexes cleave complement component C3 into anaphylatoxin C3a and opsonin C3b. Here we report the crystal structure of the C3 convertase formed by C3b and the protease fragment Bb, which was stabilized by the bacterial(More)
Streptococcal inhibitor of complement (SIC) is a highly polymorphic extracellular protein and putative virulence factor secreted by M1 and M57 strains of group A Streptococcus (GAS). The sic gene is highly upregulated in invasive M1T1 GAS isolates following selection of mutations in the covR/S regulatory locus in vivo. Previous work has shown that SIC(More)
Upon contact with human plasma, bacteria are rapidly recognized by the complement system that labels their surface for uptake and clearance by phagocytic cells. Staphylococcus aureus secretes the 16 kD Extracellular fibrinogen binding protein (Efb) that binds two different plasma proteins using separate domains: the Efb N-terminus binds to fibrinogen, while(More)
The plasma proteins of the complement system are essential in the innate immune response against bacteria. Complement labels bacteria with opsonins to support phagocytosis and generates chemoattractants to attract phagocytes to the site of infection. In turn, bacterial human pathogens have evolved different strategies to specifically impair the complement(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SaB) carries considerable morbidity and mortality. We examined the predictive value of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-10, proinflammatory cytokines, and terminal complement on patient survival and SaB duration. METHODS Clinical information on consecutive patients with SaB at a tertiary medical center(More)
Group A Streptococcus is a leading human pathogen associated with a diverse array of mucosal and systemic infections. Cell wall anchored pili were recently described in several species of pathogenic streptococci, and in the case of GAS, these surface appendages were demonstrated to facilitate epithelial cell adherence. Here we use targeted mutagenesis to(More)