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Two newly discovered immune modulators, chemotaxis inhibitory protein of Staphylococcus aureus (CHIPS) and staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN), cluster on the conserved 3' end of beta-hemolysin (hlb)-converting bacteriophages (betaC-phis). Since these betaC-phis also carry the genes for the immune evasion molecules staphylokinase (sak) and(More)
The complement system is pivotal in host defense but also contributes to tissue injury in several diseases. The assembly of C3 convertases (C4b2a and C3bBb) is a prerequisite for complement activation. The convertases catalyze C3b deposition on activator surfaces. Here we describe the identification of staphylococcal complement inhibitor, an excreted(More)
Recently we described a novel bacteriophage-encoded pathogenicity island in Staphylococcus aureus that harbors a number of virulence factors that are all involved in the evasion of innate immunity. Here we describe a mechanism by which staphylokinase (SAK), frequently present on this pathogenicity island, interferes with innate immune defenses: SAK is(More)
The CXC chemokine receptor 2 (CXCR2) on neutrophils, which recognizes chemokines produced at the site of infection, plays an important role in antimicrobial host defenses such as neutrophil activation and chemotaxis. Staphylococcus aureus is a successful human pathogen secreting a number of proteolytic enzymes, but their influence on the host immune system(More)
Complement is one of the first host defense barriers against bacteria. Activated complement attracts neutrophils to the site of infection and opsonizes bacteria to facilitate phagocytosis. The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has successfully developed ways to evade the complement system, for example by secretion of specific complement inhibitors.(More)
Group A Streptococcus (GAS) is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in humans. All GAS serotypes express the Lancefield group A carbohydrate (GAC), comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with an immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) side chain, which is the basis of rapid diagnostic tests. No biological function has been attributed to this(More)
BACKGROUND Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia (SaB) carries considerable morbidity and mortality. We examined the predictive value of serum concentrations of interleukin (IL)-10, proinflammatory cytokines, and terminal complement on patient survival and SaB duration. METHODS Clinical information on consecutive patients with SaB at a tertiary medical center(More)
Chemotaxis inhibitory protein of staphylococci (CHIPS) and Staphylococcal complement inhibitor (SCIN) are small, excreted molecules that play a crucial role in the staphylococcal defence against the human innate immune system. Here we show that they both counteract crucial acute responses of our immune system such as complement activation, neutrophil(More)
The human pathogen Staphylococcus aureus has a plethora of virulence factors that promote its colonization and survival in the host. Among such immune modulators are staphylococcal superantigen-like (SSL) proteins, comprising a family of 14 small, secreted molecules that seem to interfere with the host innate immune system. SSL7 has been described to bind(More)