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Array technologies have made it straightforward to monitor simultaneously the expression pattern of thousands of genes. The challenge now is to interpret such massive data sets. The first step is to extract the fundamental patterns of gene expression inherent in the data. This paper describes the application of self-organizing maps, a type of mathematical(More)
RXR is a nuclear receptor that plays a central role in cell signaling by pairing with a host of other receptors. Previously, 9-cis-retinoic acid (9cRA) was defined as a potent RXR activator. Here we describe a unique RXR effector identified from organic extracts of bovine serum by following RXR-dependent transcriptional activity. Structural analyses of(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment induces remissions in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases expressing the t(15;17) product, promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/RA receptor alpha (RARalpha). Microarray analyses previously revealed induction of UBE1L (ubiquitin-activating enzyme E1-like) after RA treatment of NB4 APL cells. We report here that this occurs(More)
Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is characterized by expression of promyelocytic leukemia (PML)/retinoic acid (RA) receptor alpha (RARalpha) protein and all-trans-RA-mediated clinical remissions. RA treatment can confer PML/RARalpha degradation, overcoming dominant-negative effects of this oncogenic protein. The present study uncovered independent(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) cases expressing the t(15;17) product, PML/RARalpha, is a successful example of differentiation therapy. Uncovering RA target genes is of considerable interest in APL. This study comprehensively examines in APL cells transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of the novel(More)
All-trans-retinoic acid (RA)-based differentiation therapy induces clinical remissions in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). This has propelled interest in elucidating the molecular mechanisms responsible for these remissions. The t(15;17) rearrangement results in the expression of the PML/RARalpha fusion transcript that is paradoxically linked to the(More)
Cancer is characterized by uncontrolled cell division resulting from multiple mutagenic events. Cancer chemoprevention strategies aim to inhibit or reverse these events using natural or synthetic pharmacologic agents. Ideally, this restores normal growth control mechanisms. Diverse classes of compounds have been identified with chemopreventive activity.(More)
Retinoids signal biological effects through retinoic acid receptors (RAR) and retinoid X receptors (RXR) and their co-regulators. We previously reported that all-trans retinoic acid (RA) triggers terminal differentiation in the human embryonal carcinoma cell line NTERA-2 clone D1 (NT2/D1), through an RARgamma dependent pathway. RARgamma repression in(More)
BACKGROUND Cells from patients with t(15;17) acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) express the fusion protein between the promyelocytic leukemia protein and retinoic acid receptor alpha (PML/RAR alpha). Patients with APL respond to differentiation therapy with all-trans-retinoic acid, which induces PML/RAR alpha degradation. When resistance to(More)
Retinoids, natural and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A, are active in cancer therapy and chemoprevention. We reported previously that all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment prevented carcinogen-induced transformation of immortalized human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells. To identify cancer chemopreventive mechanisms, immortalized (BEAS-2B),(More)