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Smad proteins play a key role in the intracellular signalling of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta), which elicits a large variety of cellular responses. Upon TGF beta receptor activation, Smad2 and Smad3 become phosphorylated and form heteromeric complexes with Smad4. These complexes translocate to the nucleus where they control expression of(More)
TGF-beta signals from the membrane to the nucleus through serine/threonine kinase receptors and their downstream effectors, termed SMAD proteins. The activated TGF-beta receptor induces phosphorylation of two such proteins, Smad2 and Smad3, which form hetero-oligomeric complex(es) with Smad4/DPC4 that translocate to the nucleus, where they then regulate(More)
The generation of mice lacking specific components of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signal tranduction pathway shows that TGF-beta is a key player in the development and physiology of the cardiovascular system. Both pro- and anti-angiogenic properties have been ascribed to TGF-beta, for which the molecular mechanisms are unclear. Here we(More)
This paper proposes an efficient lossless coding scheme for still images. The scheme employs a block-adaptive prediction technique to remove spatial redundancy in a given image. The resulting prediction errors are encoded using context-adaptive arithmetic coding. Several coding parameters, which must be sent to a decoder as side information, are iteratively(More)
Smad proteins have been identified as mediators of intracellular signal transduction by members of the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) superfamily, which affect cell proliferation, differentiation, as well as pattern formation during early vertebrate development. Following receptor activation, Smads are assembled into heteromeric complexes(More)
A far-red type of oxygenic photosynthesis was discovered in Acaryochloris marina, a recently found marine prokaryote that produces an atypical pigment chlorophyll d (Chl d). The purified photosystem I reaction center complex of A. marina contained 180 Chl d per 1 Chl a with PsaA-F, -L, -K, and two extra polypeptides. Laser excitation induced absorption(More)
Smads are pivotal intracellular nuclear effectors of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) family members. Ligand-induced activation of TGF-beta family receptors with intrinsic serine/threonine kinase activity trigger phosphorylation of receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads), whereas Smad2 and Smad3 are phosphorylated by TGF-beta, and activin type I(More)
Interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF-1) and IRF-2 are structurally similar DNA-binding factors which were originally identified as regulators of the type I interferon (IFN) system; the former functions as a transcriptional activator, and the latter represses IRF-1 function by competing for the same cis elements. More recent studies have revealed new roles of(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGFbeta) regulates the activation state of the endothelium via two opposing type I receptor/Smad pathways. Activin receptor-like kinase-1 (ALK1) induces Smad1/5 phosphorylation, leading to an increase in endothelial cell proliferation and migration, while ALK5 promotes Smad2/3 activation and inhibits both processes. Here, we(More)
OBJECTIVE To clarify the CT characteristics of groove pancreatitis, which is a segmental form of chronic pancreatitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The CT findings in four patients with proved groove pancreatitis were reviewed retrospectively. The examinations consisted of plain CT, dynamic CT, and high dose enhancement CT in each patient. Correlation between(More)