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The T cell immunoglobulin mucin (TIM) proteins regulate T cell activation and tolerance. Here we showed that TIM-4 is expressed on human and mouse macrophages and dendritic cells, and both TIM-4 and TIM-1 specifically bound phosphatidylserine (PS) on the surface of apoptotic cells but not any other phospholipid tested. TIM-4(+) peritoneal macrophages,(More)
An agar-degrading Thalassomonas bacterium, strain JAMB-A33, was isolated from the sediment off Noma Point, Japan, at a depth of 230 m. A novel α-agarase from the isolate was purified to homogeneity from cultures containing agar as a carbon source. The molecular mass of the purified enzyme, designated as agaraseA33, was 85 kDa on both SDS-PAGE and(More)
The structural gene for a neoagarobiose-producing beta-agarase of an Agarivorans isolate was expressed in Bacillus subtilis. High-level production of the recombinant enzyme was achieved corresponding to a level of 1.9 x 10(4) units/l of the culture broth. The efficiency of the production is thus 30-fold greater than that of the original strain. The(More)
The gene for a novel β-agarase from a deep-sea Microbulbifer-like isolate was cloned and sequenced. It encoded a mature protein of 126,921 Da (1,146 amino acids), which was a modular protein including two tandem carbohydrate-binding module (CBM)-like sequences and a catalytic module. The catalytic module resembled a glycoside hydrolase family 86 β-agarase,(More)
Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE; EC is known to catalyze the reversible epimerization of cellobiose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose in Ruminococcus albus cells. Here, we report a CE in a ruminal strain of Eubacterium cellulosolvens for the first time. The nucleotide sequence of the CE had an ORF of 1218 bp (405 amino acids; 46 963.3 Da). The CE(More)
Cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE, EC catalyzes the reversible epimerization of cellobiose to 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannose. In this study, we found a CE gene in the genome sequence of non-cellulolytic Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343. The recombinant enzyme, expressed in Escherichia coli cells, catalyzed a hydroxyl stereoisomerism at the C-2(More)
We have isolated a number of alkaliphilic Bacillus that produce alkaline exoenzymes and found a possible use for alkaline cellulase (carboxymethylcellulase) as an additive for improving the cleaning effect of detergents. Enzymatic properties of some candidate cellulases fulfilled the essential requirements for enzymes to be used practically in laundry(More)
Thermostable alkaline cellulase (endo-1,4-β-glucanase, EC activity was detected in the culture medium of a strictly alkaliphilic strain of Bacillus, designated KSM-S237. This novel enzyme was purified to homogeneity by a two-step column-chromatographic procedure with high yield. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the purified enzyme was(More)
An α-glucosidase from Geobacillus sp. strain HTA-462, one of the deepest sea bacteria isolated from the sediment of the Mariana Trench, was purified to homogeneity and estimated to be a 65-kDa protein by SDS-PAGE. At low ion strength, the enzyme exists in the homodimeric form (130 kDa). It is a thermo- and alkaline-stable enzyme with a half-life of 13.4 h(More)
The gene for cellobiose 2-epimerase (CE) from Ruminococcus albus NE1 was overexpressed in Escherichia coli cells. The recombinant CE was purified to homogeneity by a simple purification procedure with a high yield of 88%, and the molecular mass was 43.1 kDa on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 44.0 kDa on gel chromatography. It(More)