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Early social isolation results in adult behavioral and cognitive dysfunction that correlates with white matter alterations. However, how social deprivation influences myelination and the significance of these myelin defects in the adult remained undefined. We show that mice isolated for 2 weeks immediately after weaning have alterations in prefrontal cortex(More)
CD44, an adhesion molecule that binds to the extracellular matrix, primarily to hyaluronan (HA), has been implicated in cancer cell migration, invasion, and metastasis. CD44 has also recently been recognized as a marker for stem cells of several types of cancer. However, the roles of CD44 in the development of bone metastasis are unclear. Here, we addressed(More)
The cells of the subodontoblastic cell-rich layer in dental pulp are speculated to contain odontoblast progenitor cells because of their positional relationship with odontoblasts as well as their high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. However, it has yet to be determined whether these cells have the ability to differentiate into odontoblastic cells. In(More)
An alkaline mannanase (EC from the alkaliphilic Bacillus sp. strain JAMB-602 was cloned and sequenced. The deduced amino-acid sequence of the enzyme suggested that the enzyme consists of a catalytic and unknown additional domains. The recombinant enzyme expressed by B. subtilis was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at 277(More)
Many homeodomain transcription factors function in organogenesis and cell differentiation. The Nkx family illustrates these functions especially well, and the Nkx6 subfamily controls differentiation in the central nervous system and pancreas. Nkx6.3, a recent addition to this subfamily, overlaps Nkx6.1 and Nkx6.2 in expression in the hindbrain and stomach.(More)
We have proposed a new mannan catabolic pathway in Bacteroides fragilis NCTC 9343 that involves a putative mannanase ManA in glycoside hydrolase family 26 (BF0771), a mannobiose and/or sugar transporter (BF0773), mannobiose 2-epimerase (BF0774), and mannosylglucose phosphorylase (BF0772). If this hypothesis is correct, ManA has to generate mannobiose from(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS The gastric mucosa provides a stringent epithelial barrier and produces acid and enzymes that initiate digestion. In this regenerating tissue, progenitors differentiate continually into 4 principal specialized cell types, yet underlying mechanisms of differentiation are poorly understood. We identified stomach-restricted expression of the(More)
A heat-labile phenolic acid decarboxylase from Candida guilliermondii (an anamorph of Pichia guilliermondii) was purified to homogeneity by simple successive column chromatography within 3 days. The molecular mass was 20 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and 36 kDa by gel-filtration chromatography, suggesting that the purified(More)
The gene for a eukaryotic phenolic acid decarboxylase of Candida guilliermondii was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli for the first time. The structural gene contained an open reading frame of 504 bp, corresponding to 168 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 19,828 Da. The deduced amino sequence exhibited low similarity to(More)
Enterocytes assemble dietary lipids into chylomicron particles that are taken up by intestinal lacteal vessels and peripheral tissues. Although chylomicrons are known to assemble in part within membrane secretory pathways, the modifications required for efficient vascular uptake are unknown. Here we report that the transcription factor pleomorphic adenoma(More)