Susumu Iiizumi

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A number of clinically useful anticancer drugs, including etoposide (VP-16), target DNA topoisomerase (topo) II. These drugs, referred to as topo II poisons, stabilize cleavable complexes, thereby generating DNA double-strand breaks. Bis-2,6-dioxopiperazines such as ICRF-193 also inhibit topo II by inducing a distinct type of DNA damage, termed topo II(More)
Topoisomerase II (Top2) is a ubiquitous nuclear enzyme that relieves torsional stress in chromosomal DNA during various cellular processes. Agents that target Top2, involving etoposide, doxorubicin, and mitoxantrone, are among the most effective anticancer drugs used in the clinic. Mammalian cells possess two genetically distinct Top2 isoforms, both of(More)
In vertebrate cells, DNA double-strand breaks are efficiently repaired by homologous recombination or nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ). The latter pathway relies on Ku (the Ku70/Ku86 heterodimer), DNA-PKcs, Artemis, Xrcc4, and DNA ligase IV (Lig4). Here, we show that a human pre-B cell line nullizygous for Lig4 exhibits hypersensitivity to topoisomerase II(More)
Targeted gene disruption is a powerful tool for studying gene function in cells and animals. In addition, this technology includes a potential to correct disease-causing mutations. However, constructing targeting vectors is a laborious step in the gene-targeting strategy, even apart from the low efficiency of homologous recombination in mammals. Here, we(More)
In higher animal cells, the principal limitation of gene-targeting technology is the extremely low efficiency of targeted integration, which occurs three to four orders of magnitude less frequently than random integration. Assuming that random integration mechanistically involves non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ), inactivation of this pathway should reduce(More)
DNA topoisomerase II (Top2) inhibitors are useful as anticancer agents, mostly by virtue of their ability to induce DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). These DSBs are repaired almost exclusively by Rad52-dependent homologous recombination (HR) in yeast. However, we have recently shown that in vertebrate cells such lesions are primarily repaired by(More)
Gene targeting provides a powerful means for analyzing gene function, as exemplified by knockout mouse studies and recent work with the highly recombinogenic chicken DT40 B-lymphocyte line. In human cultured cells, however, the low frequency of gene targeting is a serious barrier to efficiently generate knockout clones. Moreover, commonly used human cell(More)
Artemis is a recently identified factor involved in V(D)J recombination and nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Here, we performed targeted disruption of the Artemis gene (ARTEMIS) in the human pre-B cell line Nalm-6. Unexpectedly, we found that cells lacking Artemis exhibit increased sensitivity to low doses, but not(More)
Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked immunodeficiency disease affecting cell morphology and signal transduction in hematopoietic cells. The function of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASp) and its partners in protein interaction have been studied intensively in mice; however, detailed biochemical characterization of its signal transduction and(More)
Conditional gene knockout by homologous recombination combined with an inducible gene expression system is a powerful approach for studying gene function, although homologous recombination in human cells occurs infrequently. The tetracycline-regulated gene expression (Tet-Off) system is a convenient method for achieving conditional gene knockout, but it is(More)