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Adrenomedullin (AM) has been recognized as a member of the calcitonin (CT)/CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) family. However, an independent AM family consisting of five paralogous peptides exists in teleost fish. Among them, the peptide named AM1 is an ortholog of mammalian AM as determined by the linkage analysis of orthologous genes and the presence of(More)
Prolactin (PRL)-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a strong candidate stimulator of pituitary PRL transcription and secretion in teleosts. However, the role in control of extrapituitary PRL expression is unclear even in mammals. To study the possible presence of PrRP-PRL axes not only in the brain-pituitary but also in peripheral organs, the expression patterns of(More)
Expression of beta-tubulin mRNA was examined in androgen-sensitive motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) in adult male rats by in situ hybridization histochemistry using cDNA encoding mouse beta-tubulin. Hybridizable beta-tubulin mRNA was localized in the somata and proximal dendrites of SNB motoneurons. Removal of androgen by(More)
The natriuretic peptide (NP) family is composed of three members: atrial, brain/ventricular and C-type NPs (ANP, BNP/VNP and CNP respectively) in tetrapods and teleostean fish, but only CNP in elasmobranch fish. In order to trace the process of divergence of the NP family in early vertebrate evolution, we attempted to detect NPs in the primitive ray-finned(More)
The physiological roles of neurohypophysial hormones, vasotocin (VT) and isotocin (IT), are not yet clear in teleosts. Since information on responsiveness of hypothalamic neurosecretory neurons to environmental stimuli may contribute to an understanding of their physiological roles, effects of environmental hyper- and hypo-osmotic stimuli on expressions of(More)
In teleost fishes, it is well-established that the gill serves as an important ionoregulatory organ in addition to its primary function of respiratory gas exchange. In elasmobranch fish, however, the ionoregulatory function of the gills is still poorly understood. Although mitochondria-rich (MR) cells have also been found in elasmobranch fish, these cells(More)
Expression of gap junction mRNA was examined in the androgen-sensitive motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) by in situ hybridization histochemistry using cDNA encoding rat liver gap junction protein (connexin 32). Hybridizable gap junction mRNA was localized on the somata and proximal dendrites of SNB motoneurons. The removal of(More)
Accumulating evidence indicates that circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) potently reduces excess drinking to ameliorate hypernatremia in seawater (SW) eels. However, the cerebral mechanism underlying the antidipsogenic effect is largely unknown. To localize the ANP target site in the brain, we examined the distribution of ANP receptors (NPR-A) in(More)
We investigated the ontogeny of provasopressin gene expression in neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of developing mice by semi-quantitative in situ hybridization and immunohistochemical techniques in combination with stereometry of vasopressin-immunoreactive neurons. Provasopressin mRNA was detected in paraffin sections(More)
Expression of gap junction and beta-actin mRNAs was examined in androgen-sensitive motoneurons of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus (SNB) in adult male rats by in situ hybridization histochemistry using complementary DNAs encoding rat liver gap junction protein (connexin 32) and chick beta-actin. Hybridizable gap junction and beta-actin mRNAs were(More)