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Despite the absence of a conspicuous microtubule-organizing centre, microtubules in plant cells at interphase are present in the cell cortex as a well oriented array. A recent report suggests that microtubule nucleation sites for the array are capable of associating with and dissociating from the cortex. Here, we show that nucleation requires extant(More)
We examined the involvement of mitochondria-rich (MR) cells in ion uptake through gill epithelia in freshwater-adapted killifish Fundulus heteroclitus, by morphological observation of MR cells and molecular identification of the vacuolar-type proton pump (V-ATPase). MR cell morphology was compared in fish acclimated to defined freshwaters with different(More)
Adrenomedullin (AM) has been recognized as a member of the calcitonin (CT)/CT gene-related peptide (CGRP) family. However, an independent AM family consisting of five paralogous peptides exists in teleost fish. Among them, the peptide named AM1 is an ortholog of mammalian AM as determined by the linkage analysis of orthologous genes and the presence of(More)
Reabsorption of filtered urea by the kidney tubule is essential for retaining high levels of urea in body fluids of marine elasmobranchs. To elucidate the mechanisms of urea reabsorption, we examined the distribution of a facilitative urea transporter (UT) in the kidney of the dogfish Triakis scyllia. We isolated a cDNA encoding a UT that is homologous to(More)
The vasopressin/vasotocin (VT)-V2-type receptor (V2R)-aquaporin (AQP)-2 axis plays a pivotal role in renal water reabsorption in tetrapods. It is widely thought that this axis evolved with the emergence of the tetrapods, reflecting a requirement of water retention in terrestrial environment. Here we report that lungfish, the closest living relatives of(More)
Anuran amphibians accumulate a large amount of urea in their extracellular fluids to avoid a severe dehydration under dry and hyper-saline environments. To clarify the mechanisms of urea retention, we examined structure and distribution of the urea transporter (UT) in the kidney of the marine toad (Bufo marinus), and its expression in the kidney and urinary(More)
To clarify the physiological roles of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) and arginine vasotocin (AVT) on body fluid regulation in amphibians, we measured plasma concentrations of aldosterone (ALDO), angiotensin II (ANG II), and AVT after various osmotic challenges in the marine toad, Bufo marinus (Bufonidae). Hematocrit value (Ht) as an(More)
Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins are a family of membrane proteins capable of transporting ammonia. We isolated the full-length cDNA of a novel Rh glycoprotein, Rhp2, from a kidney cDNA library from the banded hound shark, Triakis scyllium. Molecular cloning and characterization indicated that Rhp2 consists of 476 amino acid residues and has 12 putative(More)
The complete cDNA sequence of the tilapia extracellular Ca(2+)-sensing receptor (CaR) was determined. The transcript length of tilapia CaR (tCaR) is 3.4 kbp and encodes a 940-amino acid, 7-transmembrane domain protein that is consistent in its structural features with known mammalian and piscine CaRs. The tCaR extracellular domain includes a characteristic(More)
Fish endocrinologists are commonly motivated to pursue their research driven by their own interests in these aquatic animals. However, the data obtained in fish studies not only satisfy their own interests but often contribute more generally to the studies of other vertebrates, including mammals. The life of fishes is characterized by the aquatic habitat,(More)