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Much of the genome is transcribed into long noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs). Previous data suggested that bithoraxoid (bxd) ncRNAs of the Drosophila bithorax complex (BX-C) prevent silencing of Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and recruit activating proteins of the trithorax group (trxG) to their maintenance elements (MEs). We found that, surprisingly, Ubx and several bxd(More)
RNA polymerase II (Pol II) transcription through nucleosomes is facilitated in vitro by the protein complex FACT (Facilitates Chromatin Transcription). Here we show that FACT is associated with actively transcribed Pol II genes on Drosophila polytene chromosomes. FACT displays kinetics of recruitment and of chromosome tracking in vivo similar to Pol II and(More)
Chromatin is suppressive in nature to cellular enzymes that metabolize DNA, mainly due to the inherent inaccessibility of the DNA template. Despite extensive understanding of the involvement of chromatin-modifying factors in transcription, roles of related activities in DNA replication remain largely elusive. Here, we show that the heterodimeric(More)
Posttranslational histone modifications are important for the regulation of many biological phenomena. Here, we show the purification and characterization of nucleosomal histone kinase-1 (NHK-1). NHK-1 has a high affinity for chromatin and phosphorylates a novel site, Thr 119, at the C terminus of H2A. Notably, NHK-1 specifically phosphorylates nucleosomal(More)
Chromatin structure plays a critical role in the regulation of transcription. Drosophila GAGA factor directs chromatin remodeling to its binding sites. We show here that Drosophila FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription), a heterodimer of dSPT16 and dSSRP1, is associated with GAGA factor through its dSSRP1 subunit, binds to a nucleosome, and facilitates(More)
Human remodeling and spacing factor (RSF) consists of a heterodimer of Rsf-1 and hSNF2H, a counterpart of Drosophila ISWI. RSF possesses not only chromatin remodeling activity but also chromatin assembly activity in vitro. While no other single factor can execute the same activities as RSF, the biological significance of RSF remained unknown. To investigate(More)
During gene activation, the effect of binding of transcription factors to cis-acting DNA sequences is transmitted to RNA polymerase by means of co-activators. Although co-activators contribute to the efficiency of transcription, their developmental roles are poorly understood. We used Drosophila to conduct molecular and genetic dissection of an(More)
Basic leucine zipper proteins Jun and Fos form the dimeric transcription factor AP-1, essential for cell differentiation and immune and antioxidant defenses. AP-1 activity is controlled, in part, by the redox state of critical cysteine residues within the basic regions of Jun and Fos. Mutation of these cysteines contributes to oncogenic potential of Jun and(More)
Bulk DNA within the eukaryotic genome is torsionarily relaxed. However, unconstrained negative supercoils of DNA have been detected in few local domains of the genome through preferential binding of psoralen. To make a genome-wide survey for such domains, we introduced biotinylated psoralen into Drosophila salivary glands and visualized it on polytene(More)
Epigenetic maintenance of the expression state of the genome is critical for development. Drosophila GAGA factor interacts with FACT and modulates chromatin structure for the maintenance of gene expression. Here we show that the GAGA factor-FACT complex and its binding site just downstream from the white gene are crucial for position effect variegation.(More)