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Diabetes is known to be one of the risk factors for dementia; however, neuropathic changes in the brain of patients with the disease have not been completely revealed. So in the present study, we investigated the brain function of rats with diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ), one of the most commonly used animal models for diabetes. In the diabetic(More)
To identify production sites and action targets of neurotrophins during neurogenesis, we investigated immunoreactivities of neurotrophins and their tyrosine kinase receptors in the cerebral cortex of rat embryos. Two sets of ligand-receptor systems, brain-derived neurotrophic factor/TrkB and neurotrophin-3/TrkC, were expressed simultaneously in(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and its C-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 modulate production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammation. We examined whether systemic alpha-MSH and alpha-MSH11-13 inhibit activation of the nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), a factor that is(More)
With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)
Normal peripheral blood leukocytes, such as basophils, eosinophils, B lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages, have a cysteinyl leukotriene 1 (CysLT1) receptor, while the cysteinyl leukotriene 2 (CysLT2) receptor is expressed in cardiac Purkinje cells, endothelium, brain and leukocytes. However, it is unknown whether or not platelets express the CysLT1 or(More)
MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
Studies were conducted to explore the effects of oleate addition on the secretion of apolipoprotein B (apoB)-containing lipoproteins from Hep G2 cells. Whether oleate was added simultaneously with [3H]-leucine or added to prelabeled cells, the rate of secretion of apoB was stimulated more than 100% within 40 min. When oleate was withdrawn from the cells,(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
We investigated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 as proinflammatory cytokines in CSF to facilitate differentiation between acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and prolonged febrile seizures. We studied 20 children with prolonged febrile seizures and 23 with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy,(More)