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With the rise in the field of neuroimmunomodulation research, there is increased recognition of the influence of the nervous system and neuropeptides in peripheral disease. The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) is a neuroimmunomodulatory agent that modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibits peripheral(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and its C-terminal tripeptide alpha-MSH11-13 modulate production of proinflammatory cytokines and inhibit inflammation. We examined whether systemic alpha-MSH and alpha-MSH11-13 inhibit activation of the nuclear transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB), a factor that is(More)
MRI studies using the manual tracing method have shown a smaller-than-normal hippocampal volume in patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, these studies have yielded inconsistent results, and brain structures other than the hippocampus have not been well investigated. A recently developed, fully automated method called voxel-based(More)
Sodium valproate (VPA) is frequently used to treat epilepsy and convulsive disorders. Several reports have indicated that anti-epileptic drugs (AED) affect the immune system, but the mechanism has not been clear. We examined whether the commonly used AEDs, diazepam (DZP), carbamazepine (CBZ), phenobarbital (PB), phenytoin (PHT), and VPA, can inhibit(More)
We investigated the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 alpha (IL-1 beta), and IL-6 as proinflammatory cytokines in CSF to facilitate differentiation between acute encephalitis/encephalopathy and prolonged febrile seizures. We studied 20 children with prolonged febrile seizures and 23 with acute encephalitis/encephalopathy,(More)
Macrolide antibiotics modulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. Transcription of the genes for these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). We examined whether or not clarithromycin inhibits the activation of NF-kappaB induced by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) or staphylococcal(More)
Kawasaki disease (KD) is an acute febrile vasculitis in childhood that is associated with inflammatory cytokines, in which the vascular inflammation results in damage to the coronary arteries. The active form of vitamin D, 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) {1alpha,25-(OH)(2)D(3)} exhibits anti-inflammatory activities. In this study, we determined the mRNA and(More)
Cytokines such as gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) inhibit the intracellular replication of Chlamydia pneumoniae or Chlamydia trachomatis. In this study, we found that another cytokine, lymphotoxin (TNF-beta), restricts the growth of C. pneumoniae in HEp-2 cells. When lymphotoxin (10 U/ml) was added during incubation from 8 to 16(More)
The neuropeptide alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) modulates production of proinflammatory cytokines in brain tissue and in peripheral inflammatory cells. Transcription of the genes for these proinflammatory cytokines is regulated by the nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB). NF-kappaB is also activated by proinflammatory cytokines. Degradation(More)
Three children ranging in age from 2 to 5 years with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) were successfully treated with high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG). Their symptoms were somnolence, fever, headache, vomiting, and resting tremor. In all of these patients, it was difficult to distinguish the condition from viral encephalitis before(More)