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The relationship between depressive symptom scores on the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D; L. S. Radloff, 1977) at each trimester of pregnancy and a decrement in either fetal growth or gestational duration was evaluated among 666 pregnant women. There was no association overall, but among 222 women from lower occupational status(More)
Because the HIV pandemic undergoes continual change in its locations and affected populations, it is crucial to study HIV risk behaviors among mobile and immigrant groups within and across borders. The impact of cross-cultural migrations and the importance of studying that impact in terms of demographic characteristics as well as cultural and environmental(More)
Most HIV prevention literature portrays women as especially vulnerable to HIV infection because of biological susceptibility and men's sexual power and privilege. Conversely, heterosexual men are perceived as active transmitters of HIV but not active agents in prevention. Although the women's vulnerability paradigm was a radical revision of earlier views of(More)
This article seeks to fill the gap in female condom acceptability research by examining family planning (FP) providers' attitudes and experiences regarding the female condom in three countries (South Africa, the US, and Nigeria) to highlight providers' potential integral role in the introduction of the female condom. The case studies used data drawn from(More)
New methods are now available, and others are being developed, that could enable women to take the initiative in preventing sexually transmitted infections. However, attempts to capitalize on "female-controlled" preventive methods thus far have met with limited success. Female-initiated methods were introduced to intervene in the state of gender relations(More)
BACKGROUND Timely antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation requires early diagnosis of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection with prompt enrollment and engagement in HIV care. METHODS We examined programmatic data on 334 557 adults enrolling in HIV care, including 149 032 who initiated ART during 2006-2011 at 132 facilities in Kenya, Mozambique,(More)
In the global literature on HIV/AIDS, much attention has been paid to the role of gender inequalities in facilitating the transmission of HIV. For women, gender inequality may be manifested in sexual coercion, reduced negotiating power and partnering with older men, all practices that heighten risk for HIV. Less attention, however, has been paid to how(More)
OBJECTIVES We compared Black West Indian immigrants' and US-born Blacks' sexual and drug-use risk behaviors and their beliefs related to using condoms and informing partners of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to identify possible differences in risk. METHODS We drew data from the baseline assessment of a clinic-based intervention designed to(More)
OBJECTIVES In this phase I safety trial of tenofovir gel, a candidate vaginal microbicide for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention, a mixed-methods design was used to gather acceptability data among women participants. The impact of acceptability factors on use of the gel and the relationship between qualitative and quantitative acceptability data(More)
We studied the acceptability of tenofovir gel among HIV-infected and uninfected men who were exposed to it during vaginal intercourse. The gel was found to be highly acceptable to most men, the large majority indicating they would probably use it in the future if they were concerned about HIV and the product were available. Men liked the gel's transparency(More)